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Showing posts with label Online Journalism. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Online Journalism. Show all posts
Distinguishing characteristics of online journalism
• Real time
• Shifted time
• Multimedia
• Interactive
Characteristics of online journalism
• Hypertextuality
• Interactivity
• Multimediality
• Immediacy
Characteristics of the Internet
1. Anonymity
2. Interactivity
3. Beyond geography
4. Online community
5. Lower cost to participate in the public sphere
6. Lower threshold for self-expression of political opinions
Impact of Internet on Journalism
1- Traditional media started developing online presence
2- Anyone can be publisher
3- Internet introduced Mass interaction to mass media
4- Impact of internet on News gathering
5- Impact of internet on Access to information and distribution of News
Flexible Delivery Platforms
Online news contents included in searchable databases
. SMS on cells

Distinguishing Characteristics of Online Journalism

Distinguishing characteristics of online journalism
• Real time
• Shifted time
• Multimedia
• Interactive
Characteristics of online journalism
• Hypertextuality
• Interactivity
• Multimediality
• Immediacy
Characteristics of the Internet
1. Anonymity
2. Interactivity
3. Beyond geography
4. Online community
5. Lower cost to participate in the public sphere
6. Lower threshold for self-expression of political opinions
Impact of Internet on Journalism
1- Traditional media started developing online presence
2- Anyone can be publisher
3- Internet introduced Mass interaction to mass media
4- Impact of internet on News gathering
5- Impact of internet on Access to information and distribution of News
Flexible Delivery Platforms
Online news contents included in searchable databases
. SMS on cells

Posted at 8:35 PM |  by Unknown
Past History The per-lndeperidence Muslim press in the South Asian Sub-Continent had its leading lights in the form of powerful independent newspapers like Hamdard and Zamindar. The proud names of Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Zafar Ali Khan stand out prominently in the annals of Muslim journalism. The Star of India (Calcutta, 1937), Morning News (Calcutta, 1942), Dawn (Delhi, 1945) and the Pakistan Times (Lahore, 1947), were great exponents of the Muslim cause for the creation of Pakistan. , These efforts were usefully supplemented by valuable services rendered by some of the newspapers brought out from distincts.When Pakistan appeared on the map of the world on August 14, 1947, there were only two English dailies published from Lahore, The Pakistan Times, founded by the father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and Civil & Military Gazette (now defunct)
and two Urdu dailies Nawa-i-Waqt and Zamindar, the latter having ceased publication after a few years. Dawn started appearing as a weekly from Delhi in 1942 and later on became a daily in 1945. After the establishment of Pakistan, it shifted to Karachi. Two Urdu dailies, Jung and Anjam, originally appearing from Delhi, also shifted to Karachi soon after Independence.
Despite the difficulties and paucity of technical know-how and finances, the Press in Pakistan moved forward slowly but steadily. According to the Press Information Department figures published by the National Press Trust in 1987, the total number of newspapers and periodicals in the country has risen to 1278 including 124 dailies. The range and depth in their coverage of news and views vary from those of local to national and international importance. Some of the newspapers have their international editions. The press in Pakistan is getting a new fillip with the increasing availability of new technology.

Independence Muslim press in the South Asian

Past History The per-lndeperidence Muslim press in the South Asian Sub-Continent had its leading lights in the form of powerful independent newspapers like Hamdard and Zamindar. The proud names of Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar and Maulana Zafar Ali Khan stand out prominently in the annals of Muslim journalism. The Star of India (Calcutta, 1937), Morning News (Calcutta, 1942), Dawn (Delhi, 1945) and the Pakistan Times (Lahore, 1947), were great exponents of the Muslim cause for the creation of Pakistan. , These efforts were usefully supplemented by valuable services rendered by some of the newspapers brought out from distincts.When Pakistan appeared on the map of the world on August 14, 1947, there were only two English dailies published from Lahore, The Pakistan Times, founded by the father of the nation, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, and Civil & Military Gazette (now defunct)
and two Urdu dailies Nawa-i-Waqt and Zamindar, the latter having ceased publication after a few years. Dawn started appearing as a weekly from Delhi in 1942 and later on became a daily in 1945. After the establishment of Pakistan, it shifted to Karachi. Two Urdu dailies, Jung and Anjam, originally appearing from Delhi, also shifted to Karachi soon after Independence.
Despite the difficulties and paucity of technical know-how and finances, the Press in Pakistan moved forward slowly but steadily. According to the Press Information Department figures published by the National Press Trust in 1987, the total number of newspapers and periodicals in the country has risen to 1278 including 124 dailies. The range and depth in their coverage of news and views vary from those of local to national and international importance. Some of the newspapers have their international editions. The press in Pakistan is getting a new fillip with the increasing availability of new technology.

Posted at 8:27 PM |  by Unknown
What is media convergence?
• Convergence of media occurs when multiple products come together to form one product with the advantages of all of them.
• Media Convergence is gathering and dissemination of news across a multi- media platform.” -
Traci Mitchell.
• Media Convergence is the process of combining and presenting of different media (multimedia) into a single delivery system. The Internet is an example of convergence.
• Data and Voice Services - from separate voice and data services to multimedia applications (IPTelephony, Web Contact Centers)
• Fixed and Mobile Networks and Services - from separate ones to the single infrastructure:
CAMEL, VHE, IPv6, IMS
• Public and Corporate Networks – from dedicated networks to open networks.
• Phone, TV and Computer Terminals – from separate devices to combined multimedia terminals
• Broadcasting services-from broadcasting services to Web based TV services: IATV, VoD,
WebTV
• For the consumer: more features in less space.
• For media companies: remaining competitive in the struggle for market dominance.
• An ever-wider range of technologies are being converged into single multipurpose devices.
Text

What is The Media Convergence?

What is media convergence?
• Convergence of media occurs when multiple products come together to form one product with the advantages of all of them.
• Media Convergence is gathering and dissemination of news across a multi- media platform.” -
Traci Mitchell.
• Media Convergence is the process of combining and presenting of different media (multimedia) into a single delivery system. The Internet is an example of convergence.
• Data and Voice Services - from separate voice and data services to multimedia applications (IPTelephony, Web Contact Centers)
• Fixed and Mobile Networks and Services - from separate ones to the single infrastructure:
CAMEL, VHE, IPv6, IMS
• Public and Corporate Networks – from dedicated networks to open networks.
• Phone, TV and Computer Terminals – from separate devices to combined multimedia terminals
• Broadcasting services-from broadcasting services to Web based TV services: IATV, VoD,
WebTV
• For the consumer: more features in less space.
• For media companies: remaining competitive in the struggle for market dominance.
• An ever-wider range of technologies are being converged into single multipurpose devices.
Text

Posted at 8:24 PM |  by Unknown
Development in Magazine Journalism
• The world magazine entered the English in the late 1500s.
• The term of magazine originally from the Arabic “makhasin” which mean “storehouse”. The term magazine refers in ancient times to a place containing a collection of different items, usually military stores. Still this word describes many kind of military stores.
• In 1700s early print periodicals called magazine.
• Magazine depended on technological developments in moveable type, press, printing, and paper as a book and newspaper
• Magazines are unique medium in print media.
• Magazine was originally established in London, when the British expanded magazine began to prosper to United States in eighteen century.
• Magazine was a serious and respected medium serving millions of readers in the end of
nineteenth century.
• During the early twentieth century magazines played an important role in exposing unacceptable social conditions and stimulating social reforms. Between the two world wars, before television became a household medium, they were one of the major mass media advertising nationally distributed products.
• After World War 2 the growth of television had a significant impact on the magazine industry. Large-circulation general magazines were severely hurt financially, but new kinds of magazines were founded and the industry thrives today.
• Magazines have always served specific functions in society that differ from those either newspaper or books. Furthermore, those who subscribe to and read magazines constitute a distinct segment of U.S society. Magazines’ functions and audiences have a long and colorful history and although magazines have change greatly in recent times, at lest some remain remarkably as they were from their beginnings.
• The first magazine was “The Review” published in 1704 as a small weekly periodical and founder of the first magazine was “Daniel Defoe”. Policies of this magazine were against the Crown and Church .The first editor had been arrested earlier because of his critical writings denouncing certain policies of the Church of England.
• The first magazine published in Sub-Continent was Jam-e-Jaha Numa.
• Magazine was born as an instrument of politics.

Development In Magazine Journalism Online

Development in Magazine Journalism
• The world magazine entered the English in the late 1500s.
• The term of magazine originally from the Arabic “makhasin” which mean “storehouse”. The term magazine refers in ancient times to a place containing a collection of different items, usually military stores. Still this word describes many kind of military stores.
• In 1700s early print periodicals called magazine.
• Magazine depended on technological developments in moveable type, press, printing, and paper as a book and newspaper
• Magazines are unique medium in print media.
• Magazine was originally established in London, when the British expanded magazine began to prosper to United States in eighteen century.
• Magazine was a serious and respected medium serving millions of readers in the end of
nineteenth century.
• During the early twentieth century magazines played an important role in exposing unacceptable social conditions and stimulating social reforms. Between the two world wars, before television became a household medium, they were one of the major mass media advertising nationally distributed products.
• After World War 2 the growth of television had a significant impact on the magazine industry. Large-circulation general magazines were severely hurt financially, but new kinds of magazines were founded and the industry thrives today.
• Magazines have always served specific functions in society that differ from those either newspaper or books. Furthermore, those who subscribe to and read magazines constitute a distinct segment of U.S society. Magazines’ functions and audiences have a long and colorful history and although magazines have change greatly in recent times, at lest some remain remarkably as they were from their beginnings.
• The first magazine was “The Review” published in 1704 as a small weekly periodical and founder of the first magazine was “Daniel Defoe”. Policies of this magazine were against the Crown and Church .The first editor had been arrested earlier because of his critical writings denouncing certain policies of the Church of England.
• The first magazine published in Sub-Continent was Jam-e-Jaha Numa.
• Magazine was born as an instrument of politics.

Posted at 8:18 PM |  by Unknown
Magazine and types of magazines
Magazine
A magazine is a periodical publication containing a wide variety of articles on various subjects. Periodical
A periodical is a regular issue from a press; it could be a magazine or a review.Journal A journal is a professional periodical.
Historical perspective
The term Magazine was first used in 1731 in the title of “Gentleman’s Magazine” which was founded in London; however, magazine in its very early form was available to general public since 1646. In 1691 The Complete Library appeared on the scene which is taken as the first magazine that broke away from book information. The first essay-type periodical was Tattler and the first magazine published from USA was Andrew Bradford's American Magazine.
Magazine Journalism after Independence
Major contribution of periodicals in the history of Pakistan had been in the area of literature.
Quite a huge number of literary journals and magazines of high quality were published in the early years of our independence which resulted into this mindset of the readers that a periodical is a literary journal, which is altogether wrong.
Since independence different magazines and periodicals have been published and are still being published. These magazines and periodicals can be classified into different categories:
Literary Magazine
A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature. It usually covers poetry, short stories, essays on different topics, critical reviews of different books, interviews of different poets and authors, letters and a lot of other related stuff. Some famous literary magazines that were published but have now vanished from the scene are: Sawera,
Naqsh, Naya Daur, Naya adab, Urdu adab, etc. After 60s one by one they vanished and digest magazines took their place. Most of the critics blame radio, TV and newspapers for this. Television and radio are providing entertainment and information in the form of dramas, songs (poetry), discussions etc. and therefore people don’t bother to buy and read these magazines. Another reason is the lack of availability of good piece of writings and the cheap entertainment available in the form of digests.
Religious Magazine
Religious magazine is a magazine devoted to some specific religion. It is usually aimed at preaching some particular religion though religious poetry, religious scholars’ articles and interviews, answering people’s different questions and queries regarding that religion, historical incidents, comparative analysis with other religions etc.
In 19th century when journalism was taking its shape in sub-continent the most popular periodicals were religious magazines. Hindus, Muslims and Christian missionaries were publishing their magazines and propagating their religions. Different organizations, sects and people belonging to different religions are publishing their magazines in Pakistan but they are not so popular any more because electronic media particularly private Islamic and other channels are also doing the job in a bit different and to an extent popular way which has ultimately reduced the demand for religious magazines.

Film Magazine
Film magazines provide both information as well as entertainment to the readers. They are considered as the most popular periodicals worldwide. They provide an update to public on the upcoming new local and international movies, interviews and pictures of their favorite starts, some spicy news about the actors and actresses, and a lot of other stuff of public interest. In Pakistan, film magazines have become less popular over the time which is considered as the outcome of over all downfall of Pakistan Film Industry. Till 1970, app.110 films were released per year and now it is 20-25. Similarly, number of cinema houses in the country till 1970 was 850 and now it is about 350. This gradual decline of film industry has disturbed the circulation of film magazine in the country resulting into the lesser number of publications available. Another reason is the coverage of film and entertainment media by newspapers. Newspapers are now providing such an extensive coverage to entertainment
industry particularly films that people don’t really feel like buying film magazines any more.
Sports Magazine
As the name indicates, sports magazine cover sports and sports persons. They provide information to sports fans about the international and national sports events and sports persons and also give pictorial coverage to mega sports events to meet the public demands.
Political Magazine
Magazines providing an insight and update on different political events nationally and internationally, political updates, news, interviews of famous politicians, political parties’ activities and their affairs, political scandals, public opinion regarding the popularity of different parties and politicians are called Political magazines. In 7th and 8th decade of 20th century we had some really popular political magz but now they are not that popular any more and their circulation has also decreased to a great extent. The major reason of their decline is newspapers; newspapers are now so deeply and thoroughly covering political news and other related things in the form of editorials, features and columns that people are no more interested in spending extra money on reading political magazines because they can read and get all the required information from newspapers. Some of the very famous political magazines that once we had were: Lail-o-nahar, Al-fateh etc.
Women’s Magazine
Before partition, sub-continent had some very popular women’s magazines like Ismat, which was published from Delhi. After independence, in 1960s other then independent women magz, all national dailies also started publishing women’s periodicals.
A women’s magazine has everything of women’s interest which could be beauty tips, articles on women issues, their poetry and other writings, interviews of successful women, etc.
Children’s Magazine
Phool was one of the most popular children’s magazine of sub-continent before independence. Khilona from Delhi was another one that continued publishing even after partition. In Pakistan, daily newspapers are also publishing children’s special periodicals in which they mostly cover children’s drawings, pictures, poems, shot stories, cartoons and other stuff of their interest.
Fashion Magazine
They are also called society magazines as they inform people about the new trends of the society in different ways. A special feature of these fashion mag is their quality of Photo Journalism, which is very high. They are usually liked by people but their circulation is not that high in the country which is due to their expensive nature.
Digest Magazine
Reader’s Digest is the first digest in the history of digest magazines. Digest magazine is a magazine that provides a digestible material to its readers. In Pakistan 80-85 digest magazines are available for light reading. They usually cover translations of short stories and novels from other languages mostly English, mythological stories, local stories, fiction etc. Digest magazines have now become the most popular and affordable type of magazine in Pakistan.

Magazine and Types of Magazines

Magazine and types of magazines
Magazine
A magazine is a periodical publication containing a wide variety of articles on various subjects. Periodical
A periodical is a regular issue from a press; it could be a magazine or a review.Journal A journal is a professional periodical.
Historical perspective
The term Magazine was first used in 1731 in the title of “Gentleman’s Magazine” which was founded in London; however, magazine in its very early form was available to general public since 1646. In 1691 The Complete Library appeared on the scene which is taken as the first magazine that broke away from book information. The first essay-type periodical was Tattler and the first magazine published from USA was Andrew Bradford's American Magazine.
Magazine Journalism after Independence
Major contribution of periodicals in the history of Pakistan had been in the area of literature.
Quite a huge number of literary journals and magazines of high quality were published in the early years of our independence which resulted into this mindset of the readers that a periodical is a literary journal, which is altogether wrong.
Since independence different magazines and periodicals have been published and are still being published. These magazines and periodicals can be classified into different categories:
Literary Magazine
A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature. It usually covers poetry, short stories, essays on different topics, critical reviews of different books, interviews of different poets and authors, letters and a lot of other related stuff. Some famous literary magazines that were published but have now vanished from the scene are: Sawera,
Naqsh, Naya Daur, Naya adab, Urdu adab, etc. After 60s one by one they vanished and digest magazines took their place. Most of the critics blame radio, TV and newspapers for this. Television and radio are providing entertainment and information in the form of dramas, songs (poetry), discussions etc. and therefore people don’t bother to buy and read these magazines. Another reason is the lack of availability of good piece of writings and the cheap entertainment available in the form of digests.
Religious Magazine
Religious magazine is a magazine devoted to some specific religion. It is usually aimed at preaching some particular religion though religious poetry, religious scholars’ articles and interviews, answering people’s different questions and queries regarding that religion, historical incidents, comparative analysis with other religions etc.
In 19th century when journalism was taking its shape in sub-continent the most popular periodicals were religious magazines. Hindus, Muslims and Christian missionaries were publishing their magazines and propagating their religions. Different organizations, sects and people belonging to different religions are publishing their magazines in Pakistan but they are not so popular any more because electronic media particularly private Islamic and other channels are also doing the job in a bit different and to an extent popular way which has ultimately reduced the demand for religious magazines.

Film Magazine
Film magazines provide both information as well as entertainment to the readers. They are considered as the most popular periodicals worldwide. They provide an update to public on the upcoming new local and international movies, interviews and pictures of their favorite starts, some spicy news about the actors and actresses, and a lot of other stuff of public interest. In Pakistan, film magazines have become less popular over the time which is considered as the outcome of over all downfall of Pakistan Film Industry. Till 1970, app.110 films were released per year and now it is 20-25. Similarly, number of cinema houses in the country till 1970 was 850 and now it is about 350. This gradual decline of film industry has disturbed the circulation of film magazine in the country resulting into the lesser number of publications available. Another reason is the coverage of film and entertainment media by newspapers. Newspapers are now providing such an extensive coverage to entertainment
industry particularly films that people don’t really feel like buying film magazines any more.
Sports Magazine
As the name indicates, sports magazine cover sports and sports persons. They provide information to sports fans about the international and national sports events and sports persons and also give pictorial coverage to mega sports events to meet the public demands.
Political Magazine
Magazines providing an insight and update on different political events nationally and internationally, political updates, news, interviews of famous politicians, political parties’ activities and their affairs, political scandals, public opinion regarding the popularity of different parties and politicians are called Political magazines. In 7th and 8th decade of 20th century we had some really popular political magz but now they are not that popular any more and their circulation has also decreased to a great extent. The major reason of their decline is newspapers; newspapers are now so deeply and thoroughly covering political news and other related things in the form of editorials, features and columns that people are no more interested in spending extra money on reading political magazines because they can read and get all the required information from newspapers. Some of the very famous political magazines that once we had were: Lail-o-nahar, Al-fateh etc.
Women’s Magazine
Before partition, sub-continent had some very popular women’s magazines like Ismat, which was published from Delhi. After independence, in 1960s other then independent women magz, all national dailies also started publishing women’s periodicals.
A women’s magazine has everything of women’s interest which could be beauty tips, articles on women issues, their poetry and other writings, interviews of successful women, etc.
Children’s Magazine
Phool was one of the most popular children’s magazine of sub-continent before independence. Khilona from Delhi was another one that continued publishing even after partition. In Pakistan, daily newspapers are also publishing children’s special periodicals in which they mostly cover children’s drawings, pictures, poems, shot stories, cartoons and other stuff of their interest.
Fashion Magazine
They are also called society magazines as they inform people about the new trends of the society in different ways. A special feature of these fashion mag is their quality of Photo Journalism, which is very high. They are usually liked by people but their circulation is not that high in the country which is due to their expensive nature.
Digest Magazine
Reader’s Digest is the first digest in the history of digest magazines. Digest magazine is a magazine that provides a digestible material to its readers. In Pakistan 80-85 digest magazines are available for light reading. They usually cover translations of short stories and novels from other languages mostly English, mythological stories, local stories, fiction etc. Digest magazines have now become the most popular and affordable type of magazine in Pakistan.

Posted at 7:39 PM |  by Unknown
Evolution Of Print Journalism
• In the 10th century handmade press was first established. Book printing was started in 15th &16th Century in Europe. • The emergence of Print Media created doubts in the minds of the rulers and they took it as a threat against their rule. The rulers presumed that people would become aware of their rights and they will challenge the authority. So most of the rulers in Europe took it as a revolt and declared capital punishment for the persons involved in Mass Media. In 1663, the last capital punishment was given to a publisher because he published a book of an anonymous writer. This book contained the idea that rulers are accountable for their deeds and decisions to the masses and if any ruler does not feel himself accountable then masses have the right to overthrow his rule. This was the last capital punishment that was awarded in the history of England. • Print media could not get its full growth till the 18th century as illiteracy was the major problem in all the societies and most of the newspapers were read by the elite class because state was not responsible for the education of the masses and elites had a privilege to get private education from the arranged tutors. • The first newspaper which was in printed form published in 1642 in England. The first magazine of the world published in 1704 in London with the first issue of a small periodical called The “Review”.• In the sub-continent East India Company started the first newspaper in 1780, some papers that were in English language and mostly read by the employees of the East-India company. In 1757 when East India Company conquered Bengal, there were one lac informal institutions that were either run by Hindu Pandits or Muslim Ulamas. So publishing papers entirely in English language means that they ignored the factor of local educated people. Later on the English papers started to publish in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta because East India Company offices were in all these cities. So, it proved that publish of this paper was entirely for Company employees and not for the local Indians.

In 1822, first Urdu paper named Jam-e-Jahanuma whose editor Munshi Sada Sikh emerged and English rulers took it as a threat against them and they started to think to impose press laws to outclass local papers. Therefore, in1823 Press Act came to suppress Urdu press and it was made compulsory that the name of the Editor, Publisher and Owner along with the address should be on the first page of the newspaper .So that the government can recognize the authority of these papers. It was named as Press & Publication Ordinance (PPO). So, the era before the division of India was a tough one for the mass communication as many press owners and editors faced punishments several times under this Ordinance.
Magazine:Magazines, periodicals or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, or both.
Frequency of a Magazine: Three days, Weekly, Monthly, Annually.

Evolution Of Print Journalism In The World

Evolution Of Print Journalism
• In the 10th century handmade press was first established. Book printing was started in 15th &16th Century in Europe. • The emergence of Print Media created doubts in the minds of the rulers and they took it as a threat against their rule. The rulers presumed that people would become aware of their rights and they will challenge the authority. So most of the rulers in Europe took it as a revolt and declared capital punishment for the persons involved in Mass Media. In 1663, the last capital punishment was given to a publisher because he published a book of an anonymous writer. This book contained the idea that rulers are accountable for their deeds and decisions to the masses and if any ruler does not feel himself accountable then masses have the right to overthrow his rule. This was the last capital punishment that was awarded in the history of England. • Print media could not get its full growth till the 18th century as illiteracy was the major problem in all the societies and most of the newspapers were read by the elite class because state was not responsible for the education of the masses and elites had a privilege to get private education from the arranged tutors. • The first newspaper which was in printed form published in 1642 in England. The first magazine of the world published in 1704 in London with the first issue of a small periodical called The “Review”.• In the sub-continent East India Company started the first newspaper in 1780, some papers that were in English language and mostly read by the employees of the East-India company. In 1757 when East India Company conquered Bengal, there were one lac informal institutions that were either run by Hindu Pandits or Muslim Ulamas. So publishing papers entirely in English language means that they ignored the factor of local educated people. Later on the English papers started to publish in Madras, Bombay and Calcutta because East India Company offices were in all these cities. So, it proved that publish of this paper was entirely for Company employees and not for the local Indians.

In 1822, first Urdu paper named Jam-e-Jahanuma whose editor Munshi Sada Sikh emerged and English rulers took it as a threat against them and they started to think to impose press laws to outclass local papers. Therefore, in1823 Press Act came to suppress Urdu press and it was made compulsory that the name of the Editor, Publisher and Owner along with the address should be on the first page of the newspaper .So that the government can recognize the authority of these papers. It was named as Press & Publication Ordinance (PPO). So, the era before the division of India was a tough one for the mass communication as many press owners and editors faced punishments several times under this Ordinance.
Magazine:Magazines, periodicals or serials are publications, generally published on a regular schedule, containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising, by a purchase price, or both.
Frequency of a Magazine: Three days, Weekly, Monthly, Annually.

Posted at 7:37 PM |  by Unknown
How Cyber terrorism Explained?
Any person, group or organization who, with terrorist intent utilizes, accesses or causes to be accessed a computer or computer network or electronic system or electronic device or by any available means, and thereby knowingly engages in or attempts to engage in a terrorist act commits the offense of cyber terrorism.
Explanation1: For the purposes of this section the expression “terrorist intent” means to act with the purpose to alarm, frighten, disrupt, harm, damage, or carry out an act of violence against any segment of the population, the Government or entity associated therewith.
Explanation2: For the purposes of this section the expression “terrorist act” includes, but is not limited to, Altering by addition, deletion, or change or attempting to alter information that may result in the imminent injury, sickness, or death to any segment of the population;
ii. Transmission or attempted transmission o a harmful program with the purpose of substantially
disrupting or disabling any computer network operated by the Government or any public entity;
Aiding the commission of or attempting to aid the commission of an act of violence against the
sovereignty of Pakistan, whether or not the commission of such act of violence is actually completed; or stealing or copying, or attempting to steal or copy, or secure classified information or data necessary to manufacture any form of chemical, biological or nuclear weapon, or any other weapon of mass destruction.
Whoever commits the offense of cyber terrorism and causes death of any person shall be punishable with death or imprisonment for life, and with line and in any other case he shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine not less than ten million rupees, or with both.

Explanation Of Cyber Terrorism

How Cyber terrorism Explained?
Any person, group or organization who, with terrorist intent utilizes, accesses or causes to be accessed a computer or computer network or electronic system or electronic device or by any available means, and thereby knowingly engages in or attempts to engage in a terrorist act commits the offense of cyber terrorism.
Explanation1: For the purposes of this section the expression “terrorist intent” means to act with the purpose to alarm, frighten, disrupt, harm, damage, or carry out an act of violence against any segment of the population, the Government or entity associated therewith.
Explanation2: For the purposes of this section the expression “terrorist act” includes, but is not limited to, Altering by addition, deletion, or change or attempting to alter information that may result in the imminent injury, sickness, or death to any segment of the population;
ii. Transmission or attempted transmission o a harmful program with the purpose of substantially
disrupting or disabling any computer network operated by the Government or any public entity;
Aiding the commission of or attempting to aid the commission of an act of violence against the
sovereignty of Pakistan, whether or not the commission of such act of violence is actually completed; or stealing or copying, or attempting to steal or copy, or secure classified information or data necessary to manufacture any form of chemical, biological or nuclear weapon, or any other weapon of mass destruction.
Whoever commits the offense of cyber terrorism and causes death of any person shall be punishable with death or imprisonment for life, and with line and in any other case he shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years, or with fine not less than ten million rupees, or with both.

Posted at 7:28 PM |  by Unknown
Cyber stalking Means Whoever with intent to coerce, intimidates, or harass any person uses computer, computer network, internet, network site, electronic mail or any other similar means of communication to.
• Communicate obscene, vulgar, profane, lewd, lascivious ,
• or indecent language, picture or image;
• make any suggestion or proposal of an obscene nature;
• threaten any illegal or immoral act;
• take or distribute pictures or photographs of any person
• without his consent or knowledge;
• display or distribute information in a manner that
• substantially increases the risk of harm or violence to any
• Other person commits the offence of cyber stalking.
Whoever commits the offence specified in sub-section (1) shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years or with fine not exceeding three hundred thousand rupees, or with both.

What Is The Cyber stalking ?

Cyber stalking Means Whoever with intent to coerce, intimidates, or harass any person uses computer, computer network, internet, network site, electronic mail or any other similar means of communication to.
• Communicate obscene, vulgar, profane, lewd, lascivious ,
• or indecent language, picture or image;
• make any suggestion or proposal of an obscene nature;
• threaten any illegal or immoral act;
• take or distribute pictures or photographs of any person
• without his consent or knowledge;
• display or distribute information in a manner that
• substantially increases the risk of harm or violence to any
• Other person commits the offence of cyber stalking.
Whoever commits the offence specified in sub-section (1) shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years or with fine not exceeding three hundred thousand rupees, or with both.

Posted at 7:23 PM |  by Unknown
Studies into how users digest content on online journalism sites show that users consume the story in a
completely different way to users of traditional journalism media. In the early stages of online journalism many sites where attached to news outlets who simply posted their print story or the script of the radio story onto the page. This proved to be ineffective as writing for the online world is vastly different from writing for the printed page (DeWolk, 2001: 90). Author Martha Sammons pointed out in her Internet Writer Book that people read off the computer screen thirty percent slower then they read off paper. Also, people do not read carefully online, rather they scan. If they cannot quickly and easily find the information they are after they promptly leave the site (DeWolk, 2001: 90).To complement this, online journalism developed its own style of story construction. Presenting the story in chunks allows the reader to quickly scan the story and single out the passages relevant to them (Ward, 2002: 148). Presenting information in the form of bulleted lists, tables, graphs or other clear graphic elements allow the reader to get the information they want quickly (DeWolk, 2001: 92). The writing towards the end of the page should not conclude the story but rather should compel the user to link onto other pages connected to the story.

In broadcast, print and radio the story is presented to the user in a linear fashion. The journalist decides
how the story should be constructed and it is presented to the audience in the manner chosen by the journalist. The user would then hear, read or view the story from start to finish giving the user the option of either consuming it or not. To a certain extent, the journalist can try to guide the user through the story but ultimately the result rests with the user (Millison, 2004). The hyper textual nature of online journalism allows the user to read the parts of the story they wish to, link onto other pages within the site, play audio grabs or view short video pieces. To encompass this, the journalist must construct the story to be nonlinear, allowing the user to be able to easily follow the story as they want to. Online journalism is the place "where television, radio, and the new media forms of the internet collide" (Hall, 2001: 6). This Convergence within Journalism is likely to change everything journalists think they understand about mass media (DeWolk, 2003: 85)

The Construction of Online Journalism

Studies into how users digest content on online journalism sites show that users consume the story in a
completely different way to users of traditional journalism media. In the early stages of online journalism many sites where attached to news outlets who simply posted their print story or the script of the radio story onto the page. This proved to be ineffective as writing for the online world is vastly different from writing for the printed page (DeWolk, 2001: 90). Author Martha Sammons pointed out in her Internet Writer Book that people read off the computer screen thirty percent slower then they read off paper. Also, people do not read carefully online, rather they scan. If they cannot quickly and easily find the information they are after they promptly leave the site (DeWolk, 2001: 90).To complement this, online journalism developed its own style of story construction. Presenting the story in chunks allows the reader to quickly scan the story and single out the passages relevant to them (Ward, 2002: 148). Presenting information in the form of bulleted lists, tables, graphs or other clear graphic elements allow the reader to get the information they want quickly (DeWolk, 2001: 92). The writing towards the end of the page should not conclude the story but rather should compel the user to link onto other pages connected to the story.

In broadcast, print and radio the story is presented to the user in a linear fashion. The journalist decides
how the story should be constructed and it is presented to the audience in the manner chosen by the journalist. The user would then hear, read or view the story from start to finish giving the user the option of either consuming it or not. To a certain extent, the journalist can try to guide the user through the story but ultimately the result rests with the user (Millison, 2004). The hyper textual nature of online journalism allows the user to read the parts of the story they wish to, link onto other pages within the site, play audio grabs or view short video pieces. To encompass this, the journalist must construct the story to be nonlinear, allowing the user to be able to easily follow the story as they want to. Online journalism is the place "where television, radio, and the new media forms of the internet collide" (Hall, 2001: 6). This Convergence within Journalism is likely to change everything journalists think they understand about mass media (DeWolk, 2003: 85)

Posted at 7:11 AM |  by Unknown
Immediacy has always been a fundamental element of journalism as the very nature of the new is that it is new Broadcast and radio were traditionally the most immediate form of journalism as, should a majorstory break, they could interrupt their programming with  a bulletin. However, they are still constrained by deadlines and cannot explore the story in too much depth (Gunter, 2003: 48). Print journalism allows story depth but often the story is not reported until the morning after. Online journalism provides perhaps the best arena for distributing news quickly (DeWolk, 2001: 51) as it presents the immediacy of broadcast and radio with the depth of print. However, this has presented a problematic question for news organizations that run both a traditional and online outlet whether or not to break a story on the online site before broadcasting or publishing it. "In the one hand, the news organization wants to take advantage of the incredible speed of the internet and be the one to break the story. On the other hand the organization does not want to beat its own primary news vehicle and tell competitor what it has. The again, the organization wants to use the web site as a promotion for its primary news product. But it does not want to make it unnecessary for people to purchase the newspaper or to watch or listen to a broadcast because they saw the story on the Web already." (DeWolk, 2003: 172-3)

The Immediacy of Online Journalism

Immediacy has always been a fundamental element of journalism as the very nature of the new is that it is new Broadcast and radio were traditionally the most immediate form of journalism as, should a majorstory break, they could interrupt their programming with  a bulletin. However, they are still constrained by deadlines and cannot explore the story in too much depth (Gunter, 2003: 48). Print journalism allows story depth but often the story is not reported until the morning after. Online journalism provides perhaps the best arena for distributing news quickly (DeWolk, 2001: 51) as it presents the immediacy of broadcast and radio with the depth of print. However, this has presented a problematic question for news organizations that run both a traditional and online outlet whether or not to break a story on the online site before broadcasting or publishing it. "In the one hand, the news organization wants to take advantage of the incredible speed of the internet and be the one to break the story. On the other hand the organization does not want to beat its own primary news vehicle and tell competitor what it has. The again, the organization wants to use the web site as a promotion for its primary news product. But it does not want to make it unnecessary for people to purchase the newspaper or to watch or listen to a broadcast because they saw the story on the Web already." (DeWolk, 2003: 172-3)

Posted at 7:08 AM |  by Unknown
Distinguishing Characteristics of Online Journalism Vs Traditional Journalism

Online = real time
Online journalism can be published in real time, updating breaking news and events as they happen.
Nothing new here -- we've had this ability with telegraph, teletype, radio, and TV.

Online = shifted time
Online journalism also takes advantage of shifted time. Online publications can publish and archive
articles for viewing now or later, just as print, film, or broadcast publications can. WWW articles can be
infinitely easier to access, of course.

Online = multimedia
Online journalism can include multimedia elements: text and graphics (Newspapers and books), plus
sound, music, motion video, and animation (Broadcast radio, TV, film), 3D, etc.

Online = interactive
Online journalism is interactive. Hyperlinks represent the primary mechanism for this interactivity on the Web, linking the various elements of a lengthy, complex work, introducing multiple points of view, and adding depth and detail. A work of online journalism can consist of a hyperlinked set of web pages; these pages can themselves include hyperlinks to other web sites. Traditional journalism guides the reader through a linear narrative. The online journalist lets readers become participants, as they click their way through a hyper linked set of pages. Narrative momentum and a strong editorial voice pull a reader through a linear narrative. With interactivity, the online journalist can pre- determine, to a certain extent, the reader/participant's progress through the material, but manifold navigation pathways, branching options, and hyperlinks encourage the reader/participant to continue to explore various narrative threads assembled by the reporter/writer/editor. A web of interlinked pages is also an ideal mechanism to give reader/participants access to a library of source documents and background information that form the foundation of an extensive journalistic investigation. Readers/participants can respond instantly to material presented by the online journalist; this response can take several forms. Email to the reporter or editor resembles the traditional letter to editor of print publications, but email letters can be published much sooner online than in print. Online journalists can also take advantage of threaded discussions that let readers respond immediately to an article, and to the comments of other readers, in a bulletin board style discussion that can be accessed at any time. Readers can become participants in the ongoing co creation of an editorial environment that evolves from the online journalist's original reporting and the initial article. Blogs (short for "Web log", a Web-based journal) make this easy.
Much of the journalism published on the Web and elsewhere online amounts to nothing more than traditional magazine or newspaper articles and graphics, perhaps with some added links to related web
sites. By providing an instant, ubiquitous, cheap distribution medium, the Internet adds tremendous value to such articles. Journalists are still experimenting and discovering how best to take advantage of
interactivity and hyper linking to create distinctive works that take advantage of the benefits of the online medium

Distinguishing Characteristics of Online Journalism Vs Traditional Journalism

Distinguishing Characteristics of Online Journalism Vs Traditional Journalism

Online = real time
Online journalism can be published in real time, updating breaking news and events as they happen.
Nothing new here -- we've had this ability with telegraph, teletype, radio, and TV.

Online = shifted time
Online journalism also takes advantage of shifted time. Online publications can publish and archive
articles for viewing now or later, just as print, film, or broadcast publications can. WWW articles can be
infinitely easier to access, of course.

Online = multimedia
Online journalism can include multimedia elements: text and graphics (Newspapers and books), plus
sound, music, motion video, and animation (Broadcast radio, TV, film), 3D, etc.

Online = interactive
Online journalism is interactive. Hyperlinks represent the primary mechanism for this interactivity on the Web, linking the various elements of a lengthy, complex work, introducing multiple points of view, and adding depth and detail. A work of online journalism can consist of a hyperlinked set of web pages; these pages can themselves include hyperlinks to other web sites. Traditional journalism guides the reader through a linear narrative. The online journalist lets readers become participants, as they click their way through a hyper linked set of pages. Narrative momentum and a strong editorial voice pull a reader through a linear narrative. With interactivity, the online journalist can pre- determine, to a certain extent, the reader/participant's progress through the material, but manifold navigation pathways, branching options, and hyperlinks encourage the reader/participant to continue to explore various narrative threads assembled by the reporter/writer/editor. A web of interlinked pages is also an ideal mechanism to give reader/participants access to a library of source documents and background information that form the foundation of an extensive journalistic investigation. Readers/participants can respond instantly to material presented by the online journalist; this response can take several forms. Email to the reporter or editor resembles the traditional letter to editor of print publications, but email letters can be published much sooner online than in print. Online journalists can also take advantage of threaded discussions that let readers respond immediately to an article, and to the comments of other readers, in a bulletin board style discussion that can be accessed at any time. Readers can become participants in the ongoing co creation of an editorial environment that evolves from the online journalist's original reporting and the initial article. Blogs (short for "Web log", a Web-based journal) make this easy.
Much of the journalism published on the Web and elsewhere online amounts to nothing more than traditional magazine or newspaper articles and graphics, perhaps with some added links to related web
sites. By providing an instant, ubiquitous, cheap distribution medium, the Internet adds tremendous value to such articles. Journalists are still experimenting and discovering how best to take advantage of
interactivity and hyper linking to create distinctive works that take advantage of the benefits of the online medium

Posted at 9:44 PM |  by Unknown
This are Types of Online Advertising :
Spyware/Adware
Types of online advertising and the vehicles, which it is displayed within, grow daily as technology expands to create more opportunities. Some of them are intrusive and are usually labeled as spy ware or aware. For example, Pop-up advertisements are designed to drive traffic to the sponsor’s website. They usually occur when a new browser is opened. Initially, pop-ups were extremely effective due to the surprise and novelty factor. However, constant and annoying pop-ups have left viewers jaded and resentful, and have increased sales for pop-up blocking programs. Pop-under ads were developed as a response to pop-ups perceived negativity. Pop-under work in a similar way to pop-ups, except they appear behind the newly opened browser and so are only visible after the viewer closes the page.

Web Banner
Web banners or banner ads are advertisements that are embedded into web pages similar to the way advertisers pay for space within a magazine. Web banners are designed to drive traffic to a website and account for 54% of total online advertising revenue [2].Web banners and pop-ups can be the useful tools for online advertisers; however new web browsers provide the web surfer with options to prevent pop-ups and turn off images from selected (or all) websites. Beside that, similar to the protection of computer against the virus here come the anti-spyware or anti-adware softwares, such as Spyware Blaster and Lavasoft Ad- Aware.

Web Portal/Portal Site
Web portal or portal site is another way of online advertising. Through web portal there are more chances to exploit the entire user by putting up web banners. Thus, the advertisers can target the user at one place by choosing the relevant category provided in web portal. For example, Yahoo! have provided users with search engines, email, chat rooms, instant messaging tools, etc., which are all free for registration, with web banners or interactive broadband commercial included. Using this strategy can attract more users to visit their website and use their product, at the same time increase the number of advertisers to advertise.

Weblog/Blog
A more recent addition to the online advertising repertoire is weblogs or blogs. The full economic impact blogs will have on businesses at the current time are immeasurable; it is obvious however that they hold significant impact as they have had the power to generate awareness, burnish brands, direct online traffic and alter the existing organic flow of traffic. But this has once given a chance to the spammers by adding link to their commercial website in others' blogs, which is called blog spam or link spam.

Interactive Broadband Commercial
Another type of online advertising that is rising in prominence is Interactive Broadband Commercials: TV-like "video ad" units placed in the virtual marketplace, a highly targeted way to reach consumers. Examples of content include (but are not limited to): streaming video, animation, online gaming, and online music video content in a player environment. These ads can be put out in live, archived, and downloadable streaming content. There are hundreds of other examples and types of online advertising tools and techniques; increasingly the list is restricted only by a marketer’s imagination.

Types of Online Advertising

This are Types of Online Advertising :
Spyware/Adware
Types of online advertising and the vehicles, which it is displayed within, grow daily as technology expands to create more opportunities. Some of them are intrusive and are usually labeled as spy ware or aware. For example, Pop-up advertisements are designed to drive traffic to the sponsor’s website. They usually occur when a new browser is opened. Initially, pop-ups were extremely effective due to the surprise and novelty factor. However, constant and annoying pop-ups have left viewers jaded and resentful, and have increased sales for pop-up blocking programs. Pop-under ads were developed as a response to pop-ups perceived negativity. Pop-under work in a similar way to pop-ups, except they appear behind the newly opened browser and so are only visible after the viewer closes the page.

Web Banner
Web banners or banner ads are advertisements that are embedded into web pages similar to the way advertisers pay for space within a magazine. Web banners are designed to drive traffic to a website and account for 54% of total online advertising revenue [2].Web banners and pop-ups can be the useful tools for online advertisers; however new web browsers provide the web surfer with options to prevent pop-ups and turn off images from selected (or all) websites. Beside that, similar to the protection of computer against the virus here come the anti-spyware or anti-adware softwares, such as Spyware Blaster and Lavasoft Ad- Aware.

Web Portal/Portal Site
Web portal or portal site is another way of online advertising. Through web portal there are more chances to exploit the entire user by putting up web banners. Thus, the advertisers can target the user at one place by choosing the relevant category provided in web portal. For example, Yahoo! have provided users with search engines, email, chat rooms, instant messaging tools, etc., which are all free for registration, with web banners or interactive broadband commercial included. Using this strategy can attract more users to visit their website and use their product, at the same time increase the number of advertisers to advertise.

Weblog/Blog
A more recent addition to the online advertising repertoire is weblogs or blogs. The full economic impact blogs will have on businesses at the current time are immeasurable; it is obvious however that they hold significant impact as they have had the power to generate awareness, burnish brands, direct online traffic and alter the existing organic flow of traffic. But this has once given a chance to the spammers by adding link to their commercial website in others' blogs, which is called blog spam or link spam.

Interactive Broadband Commercial
Another type of online advertising that is rising in prominence is Interactive Broadband Commercials: TV-like "video ad" units placed in the virtual marketplace, a highly targeted way to reach consumers. Examples of content include (but are not limited to): streaming video, animation, online gaming, and online music video content in a player environment. These ads can be put out in live, archived, and downloadable streaming content. There are hundreds of other examples and types of online advertising tools and techniques; increasingly the list is restricted only by a marketer’s imagination.

Posted at 8:48 PM |  by Unknown
This are Advantages as an Advertising Medium.

Interactivity
The Internet has the facility for individuals and organizations to communicate directly with one another
regardless of distance or time. Interactivity is one of the most prominent features of Internet advertising.
Some people mention that the Internet advertising enables marketers to communicate actively with their
target customers, and to solve problems immediately.

International Audience
The Internet is, by definition, the international medium. Wherever Internet users are, even on a small island in the Pacific Ocean, they can be online once they hook up with the Internet. This is one attractive characteristic of the Internet as an advertising medium: the Internet can reach a worldwide audience without asking advertisers to pay more.

Upscale Audience
The Internet reaches an audience long seen as attractive to advertisers. In terms of demographic characteristics, they are higher-income, educated, upscale, young and managerial people (Hyland, 1998).

Tracking
Advertisers can track how users interact with their brands and products, and get to know what is interesting to their current and prospective customers. For example, a car manufacturer can track how a
user progresses through its site to determine whether more users are interested in the safety information or the "extras" that come with a particular model.

Low Cost
For now, Internet advertising can be done relatively inexpensively. However, actual cost per thousand can be high, compared with traditional media, so that an advertiser can get into Internet advertising for fewer total dollars, yet actually spend more to reach each consumer.

Convenience
From the consumer’s perspective, Internet advertising has the advantage of convenience. Consumers can browse, order, and receive products without leaving home.

Blog -- (web LOG)
A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is "blogging" and someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in chronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominently.

Advantages as an Advertising Medium

This are Advantages as an Advertising Medium.

Interactivity
The Internet has the facility for individuals and organizations to communicate directly with one another
regardless of distance or time. Interactivity is one of the most prominent features of Internet advertising.
Some people mention that the Internet advertising enables marketers to communicate actively with their
target customers, and to solve problems immediately.

International Audience
The Internet is, by definition, the international medium. Wherever Internet users are, even on a small island in the Pacific Ocean, they can be online once they hook up with the Internet. This is one attractive characteristic of the Internet as an advertising medium: the Internet can reach a worldwide audience without asking advertisers to pay more.

Upscale Audience
The Internet reaches an audience long seen as attractive to advertisers. In terms of demographic characteristics, they are higher-income, educated, upscale, young and managerial people (Hyland, 1998).

Tracking
Advertisers can track how users interact with their brands and products, and get to know what is interesting to their current and prospective customers. For example, a car manufacturer can track how a
user progresses through its site to determine whether more users are interested in the safety information or the "extras" that come with a particular model.

Low Cost
For now, Internet advertising can be done relatively inexpensively. However, actual cost per thousand can be high, compared with traditional media, so that an advertiser can get into Internet advertising for fewer total dollars, yet actually spend more to reach each consumer.

Convenience
From the consumer’s perspective, Internet advertising has the advantage of convenience. Consumers can browse, order, and receive products without leaving home.

Blog -- (web LOG)
A blog is basically a journal that is available on the web. The activity of updating a blog is "blogging" and someone who keeps a blog is a "blogger." Blogs are typically updated daily using software that allows people with little or no technical background to update and maintain the blog. Postings on a blog are almost always arranged in chronological order with the most recent additions featured most prominently.

Posted at 8:42 PM |  by Unknown
Wikipedia The Volunteer Encyclopedia Compilations of reference facilities abound on the web.Infoplease have a useful selection, including almanacs for current information. One of the innovations of the web is the great co-operative encyclopedia, Wikipedia, which now attracts 50m+ hits a day. Written by volunteers, it spans over 700,000 articles in English, with smaller quantities in dozens of other languages. Individuals can edit the contributions, but their changes are monitored by teams of other volunteers, so there are controls over what appears. A real plus is that entries can be updated in a matter of hours when something significant changes. Traditional encyclopedias have migrated online and can be useful for general knowledge queries, especially in fields where current events are not likely to outdate entries. Free offerings tend to be smaller, or older, versions: Encyclopedia Britannica offers only limited results unless you buy a subscription. Other possibilities include the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, with over 50,000 entries,

and Microsoft's Encarta, through the free pass offered in MSN Search (their paid service covers some 60,000 articles). Yearbooks or almanacs may lack changes that have occurred since publication; it's another area where the net can keep ahead. The online version of the CIA World Fact book is updated through the year. It offers a welter of facts and figures on the countries of the world, and is also downloadable.

Experts:
ProfNet provides links to thousands of news and information officers in the Americas, Europe and Africa, and offers a searchable database of 16,000+ experts (mostly in the US, UK and Canada, it appears). They operate for email queries on weekdays from 9am to 11pm, Greenwich Mean Time. Journalism Net has a good round-up of sources for experts from various countries and different disciplines.

Wikipedia The Volunteer Encyclopedia

Wikipedia The Volunteer Encyclopedia Compilations of reference facilities abound on the web.Infoplease have a useful selection, including almanacs for current information. One of the innovations of the web is the great co-operative encyclopedia, Wikipedia, which now attracts 50m+ hits a day. Written by volunteers, it spans over 700,000 articles in English, with smaller quantities in dozens of other languages. Individuals can edit the contributions, but their changes are monitored by teams of other volunteers, so there are controls over what appears. A real plus is that entries can be updated in a matter of hours when something significant changes. Traditional encyclopedias have migrated online and can be useful for general knowledge queries, especially in fields where current events are not likely to outdate entries. Free offerings tend to be smaller, or older, versions: Encyclopedia Britannica offers only limited results unless you buy a subscription. Other possibilities include the Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, with over 50,000 entries,

and Microsoft's Encarta, through the free pass offered in MSN Search (their paid service covers some 60,000 articles). Yearbooks or almanacs may lack changes that have occurred since publication; it's another area where the net can keep ahead. The online version of the CIA World Fact book is updated through the year. It offers a welter of facts and figures on the countries of the world, and is also downloadable.

Experts:
ProfNet provides links to thousands of news and information officers in the Americas, Europe and Africa, and offers a searchable database of 16,000+ experts (mostly in the US, UK and Canada, it appears). They operate for email queries on weekdays from 9am to 11pm, Greenwich Mean Time. Journalism Net has a good round-up of sources for experts from various countries and different disciplines.

Posted at 8:33 PM |  by Unknown
Gate Keeping Theory In Online Journalism One of the most easily accessible theories is the journalist as gate-keeper, a role that clearly seems threatened by a medium in which users can put their fingers on virtually any bit of information that interests them. "No other medium," one observer has suggested, "has ever given individual people such an engaged role in the movement of information and opinion or such a proprietary interest in the medium itself" [(Katz, 1994,50)]. Though the term "gate keeper" originated with sociologist Kurt Lewin, it was first applied directly to journalists by White, who studied the choices made by a wire service editor at a small Midwestern newspaper. "Mr. Gates," who selected a relatively limited number of stories for publication and rejected the rest, saw to it that "the community shall hear as a fact only those events which the newsman, as the representative of his culture, believes to be true" [(White, 1950, 390)].

Subsequent studies have indicated that the journalist's self-perception as the person who decides what
people need to know is deeply ingrained. Indeed, it has been suggested that the identification and
dissemination of what is worth knowing is the journalist's most basic and most vital task in a democratic
society, in which information plays a central role [(Janowitz, 1975)]. It would seem that the notion of
gate keeping goes right out the window with the Internet. The 'Net, and its user-friendly World Wide Web
graphical overlay, is the best example yet of a postmodern medium; it provides the opportunity for creation of a highly personal pastiche, in which all importance, all meaning is relative to an individual perspective. Users can find anything they want online. They don't need someone else to do the picking and choosing. They don't need someone else to decide what's important. They don't need someone else to digest and package their information. They don't need someone else to interpret that information for them. Or do they?

Gate-keeping theory may provide a more valuable basis for study in this new media environment than it first appears. "What happens when the gate keeper goes away?" is not the only question to be asked. It might not even be the best question. Although few published studies have specifically addressed gatekeeping in the online environment, there is some evidence that journalists see that function as evolving and adapting rather than disappearing. A study by Singer [(1997)] indicates people inside the newsroom are modifying their definition of the gate keeper to incorporate notions of both quality control and sensemaking. In particular, they see their role as credible interpreters of an unprecedented volume of available information as fundamental to their value -- even their survival -- in a new media environment. Her findings are in line with the most recent survey by Weaver and Wilhoit [(1996)], who found that journalists continue to see their primary role as interpreters, rather than mere gatherers and
disseminators, of information.

Those findings raise interesting follow-up questions for interactive media researchers to pursue. Do the growing numbers of journalists now working online also value the interpretive role? If so, how might they see themselves fulfilling it? Another approach might be to examine whether the real or perceived need for a gate-keeping or sense- making role -- among both journalists and members of the public -- increases or decreases as the amount of information expands and people are empowered to make  their own news judgments. Although the evidence is still largely anecdotal, there is some indication that online user -- despite much-publicized exclamations of elation at their new freedom from media control
over information -- may actually be looking for some sort of gate keeper. For instance, with the Communication Decency Act thrown out as unconstitutional, one of the hottest topics for Internet access
providers today is how to keep children from seeing certain content online. The perceived solution, so far, has largely been a technological one: filtering software such as Cyber Sitter or Net Nanny to carry out, in effect, editorial decisions about what is appropriate and what is not. It seems that people do still want someone or something to make -- or help them make -- judgments about content. Or consider "knowbots," the little personalizable pieces of software that will go rooting around like truffle-hunting
pigs in the incomprehensible, and exponentially expanding, vastness of the online universe to find content that matches users' identified interests. In addition to help making judgments, people are searching for help in finding information. Indeed, they also may be looking for help of a more human nature -- from, in fact, the very journalists whose influence they can, if they choose, escape online. Aside from the search engines, the most popular and widely used sites on the Web include many of those produced by employees of traditional media outlets, from CNN to USA Today to ESPN.People are even willing to pay $49 a year for access to the online Wall Street Journal. In other words, they are turning to their favorite selectors, organizers and packagers of information -- ones whose brand identity they know and, at least to some extent, trust. 

Matt Drudge, the pseudonymous online scribe who boasts of having no editor, also has no credibility. Michael Schudson began his recent book, The Power of News [(1995)], by inviting readers to imagine a world in which everyone is able to deliver information directly to everyone else through a computer, a world in which everyone can be his or her own journalist. He suggests that people would quickly become desperate to figure out which sources were legitimate and would soon be begging for help in sorting through the endless information. Furthermore, he said, they would prefer to have that help come from a source that was at least relatively savvy about what all those other people were talking
about, relatively nonpartisan and therefore relatively trustworthy. Journalism, in short, would pretty
quickly be reinvented.

Gate Keeping Theory In Online Journalism

Gate Keeping Theory In Online Journalism One of the most easily accessible theories is the journalist as gate-keeper, a role that clearly seems threatened by a medium in which users can put their fingers on virtually any bit of information that interests them. "No other medium," one observer has suggested, "has ever given individual people such an engaged role in the movement of information and opinion or such a proprietary interest in the medium itself" [(Katz, 1994,50)]. Though the term "gate keeper" originated with sociologist Kurt Lewin, it was first applied directly to journalists by White, who studied the choices made by a wire service editor at a small Midwestern newspaper. "Mr. Gates," who selected a relatively limited number of stories for publication and rejected the rest, saw to it that "the community shall hear as a fact only those events which the newsman, as the representative of his culture, believes to be true" [(White, 1950, 390)].

Subsequent studies have indicated that the journalist's self-perception as the person who decides what
people need to know is deeply ingrained. Indeed, it has been suggested that the identification and
dissemination of what is worth knowing is the journalist's most basic and most vital task in a democratic
society, in which information plays a central role [(Janowitz, 1975)]. It would seem that the notion of
gate keeping goes right out the window with the Internet. The 'Net, and its user-friendly World Wide Web
graphical overlay, is the best example yet of a postmodern medium; it provides the opportunity for creation of a highly personal pastiche, in which all importance, all meaning is relative to an individual perspective. Users can find anything they want online. They don't need someone else to do the picking and choosing. They don't need someone else to decide what's important. They don't need someone else to digest and package their information. They don't need someone else to interpret that information for them. Or do they?

Gate-keeping theory may provide a more valuable basis for study in this new media environment than it first appears. "What happens when the gate keeper goes away?" is not the only question to be asked. It might not even be the best question. Although few published studies have specifically addressed gatekeeping in the online environment, there is some evidence that journalists see that function as evolving and adapting rather than disappearing. A study by Singer [(1997)] indicates people inside the newsroom are modifying their definition of the gate keeper to incorporate notions of both quality control and sensemaking. In particular, they see their role as credible interpreters of an unprecedented volume of available information as fundamental to their value -- even their survival -- in a new media environment. Her findings are in line with the most recent survey by Weaver and Wilhoit [(1996)], who found that journalists continue to see their primary role as interpreters, rather than mere gatherers and
disseminators, of information.

Those findings raise interesting follow-up questions for interactive media researchers to pursue. Do the growing numbers of journalists now working online also value the interpretive role? If so, how might they see themselves fulfilling it? Another approach might be to examine whether the real or perceived need for a gate-keeping or sense- making role -- among both journalists and members of the public -- increases or decreases as the amount of information expands and people are empowered to make  their own news judgments. Although the evidence is still largely anecdotal, there is some indication that online user -- despite much-publicized exclamations of elation at their new freedom from media control
over information -- may actually be looking for some sort of gate keeper. For instance, with the Communication Decency Act thrown out as unconstitutional, one of the hottest topics for Internet access
providers today is how to keep children from seeing certain content online. The perceived solution, so far, has largely been a technological one: filtering software such as Cyber Sitter or Net Nanny to carry out, in effect, editorial decisions about what is appropriate and what is not. It seems that people do still want someone or something to make -- or help them make -- judgments about content. Or consider "knowbots," the little personalizable pieces of software that will go rooting around like truffle-hunting
pigs in the incomprehensible, and exponentially expanding, vastness of the online universe to find content that matches users' identified interests. In addition to help making judgments, people are searching for help in finding information. Indeed, they also may be looking for help of a more human nature -- from, in fact, the very journalists whose influence they can, if they choose, escape online. Aside from the search engines, the most popular and widely used sites on the Web include many of those produced by employees of traditional media outlets, from CNN to USA Today to ESPN.People are even willing to pay $49 a year for access to the online Wall Street Journal. In other words, they are turning to their favorite selectors, organizers and packagers of information -- ones whose brand identity they know and, at least to some extent, trust. 

Matt Drudge, the pseudonymous online scribe who boasts of having no editor, also has no credibility. Michael Schudson began his recent book, The Power of News [(1995)], by inviting readers to imagine a world in which everyone is able to deliver information directly to everyone else through a computer, a world in which everyone can be his or her own journalist. He suggests that people would quickly become desperate to figure out which sources were legitimate and would soon be begging for help in sorting through the endless information. Furthermore, he said, they would prefer to have that help come from a source that was at least relatively savvy about what all those other people were talking
about, relatively nonpartisan and therefore relatively trustworthy. Journalism, in short, would pretty
quickly be reinvented.

Posted at 8:27 PM |  by Unknown
Diffusion of innovation, a theory applied most directly to communication studies by Rogers [(1995)] and those who have built on his work, deals specifically with the spread of change through a social ystem; it therefore is a natural for this field of study. Again, much of the emphasis has been on diffusion among members of the media audience, ranging from an exploration of readership characteristics of early adopters [(Schweitzer, 1991)] to the degree to which the Internet is being incorporated into consumers' information-gathering patterns [(Stempel and Hargrove, 1996)] to a examination of likely predictors of personal computer adoption ([Lin, 1997], and earlier work). Studies within the newsroom also have been undertaken; the adoption of such new technologies as computer pagination, to offer an example from the world of print journalism, has received considerable attention (see, for instance, Russial, [1994].

Underwood, Giffard and Stamm, [1994]). Researchers also have begun to trace the use of computers
within the newsroom for a variety of information-gathering tasks, from data analysis [(Friend, 1994)] to
searches of online records [(Davenport, Fico and Weinstock, 1996)]. Garrison, who did extensive, earlier work with the adoption of computer-assisted reporting, has been at the forefront of efforts to trace the increasing use of the Internet and other interactive media by journalists([Garrison, 1997a], [1997b]). He has documented, among other things, a steady rise in the use of online information sources by reporters and a strong perception that such sources can be valuable journalistic tools.
Studies such as these provide solid data from within the newsroom, involving changes in journalists' use of and attitudes toward new communication technology, on which to continue building. More explicitly theoretical approaches would enable researchers to draw connections with the diffusion of other innovations, particularly within a fairly narrowly defined social system such as that created by journalism professionals. Studies such as those cited above indicate that the use and acceptance of online media are spreading, but we don't have a clear picture of just how that process is taking place. Specific aspects of diffusion theory raise a number of questions that have not yet been addressed. For example, innovations likely to gain a more rapid acceptance are those perceived as having a high relative advantage, or as being better than the idea they supersede, and as being highly compatible with the existing values of potential adopters. 

What are the perceived advantages of online information sources over more traditional news-gathering methods?
How do such sources mesh with the value that journalists continue to place on investigating government
claims -- or on avoiding stories with unverified content, a media role deemed "extremely important" by
almost half the journalists in Weaver and Wilhoit's [(1996)] latest study? The role of opinion leaders,
individuals within a social system who provide informal information and advice about innovations to
others within the system, also raises intriguing questions. Who are the people within the newsroom whom others will follow? And what gives them the social status that marks them as leaders in this area? Are they the same people seen as leaders in other facets of newsroom life, or do different opinion leaders emerge for technological innovations? For instance, the investigative reporters who are already at the top of the newsroom food chain may now be winning prizes for stories based on online sources, stimulating interest in other reporters seeking to advance. Or leaders may simply emerge as random individuals, perhaps caught up in the diffusion of computer-based media outside the newsroom, become excited and spread the word among their colleagues. Or maybe the opinion leaders are journalists at other media outlets, such as the ones that serve as either real or ideal destinations for large numbers of working professionals: "If it's good enough for The New York Times, it's good enough for me." What role, if any,

Diffusion of Innovation In Online Journalism

Diffusion of innovation, a theory applied most directly to communication studies by Rogers [(1995)] and those who have built on his work, deals specifically with the spread of change through a social ystem; it therefore is a natural for this field of study. Again, much of the emphasis has been on diffusion among members of the media audience, ranging from an exploration of readership characteristics of early adopters [(Schweitzer, 1991)] to the degree to which the Internet is being incorporated into consumers' information-gathering patterns [(Stempel and Hargrove, 1996)] to a examination of likely predictors of personal computer adoption ([Lin, 1997], and earlier work). Studies within the newsroom also have been undertaken; the adoption of such new technologies as computer pagination, to offer an example from the world of print journalism, has received considerable attention (see, for instance, Russial, [1994].

Underwood, Giffard and Stamm, [1994]). Researchers also have begun to trace the use of computers
within the newsroom for a variety of information-gathering tasks, from data analysis [(Friend, 1994)] to
searches of online records [(Davenport, Fico and Weinstock, 1996)]. Garrison, who did extensive, earlier work with the adoption of computer-assisted reporting, has been at the forefront of efforts to trace the increasing use of the Internet and other interactive media by journalists([Garrison, 1997a], [1997b]). He has documented, among other things, a steady rise in the use of online information sources by reporters and a strong perception that such sources can be valuable journalistic tools.
Studies such as these provide solid data from within the newsroom, involving changes in journalists' use of and attitudes toward new communication technology, on which to continue building. More explicitly theoretical approaches would enable researchers to draw connections with the diffusion of other innovations, particularly within a fairly narrowly defined social system such as that created by journalism professionals. Studies such as those cited above indicate that the use and acceptance of online media are spreading, but we don't have a clear picture of just how that process is taking place. Specific aspects of diffusion theory raise a number of questions that have not yet been addressed. For example, innovations likely to gain a more rapid acceptance are those perceived as having a high relative advantage, or as being better than the idea they supersede, and as being highly compatible with the existing values of potential adopters. 

What are the perceived advantages of online information sources over more traditional news-gathering methods?
How do such sources mesh with the value that journalists continue to place on investigating government
claims -- or on avoiding stories with unverified content, a media role deemed "extremely important" by
almost half the journalists in Weaver and Wilhoit's [(1996)] latest study? The role of opinion leaders,
individuals within a social system who provide informal information and advice about innovations to
others within the system, also raises intriguing questions. Who are the people within the newsroom whom others will follow? And what gives them the social status that marks them as leaders in this area? Are they the same people seen as leaders in other facets of newsroom life, or do different opinion leaders emerge for technological innovations? For instance, the investigative reporters who are already at the top of the newsroom food chain may now be winning prizes for stories based on online sources, stimulating interest in other reporters seeking to advance. Or leaders may simply emerge as random individuals, perhaps caught up in the diffusion of computer-based media outside the newsroom, become excited and spread the word among their colleagues. Or maybe the opinion leaders are journalists at other media outlets, such as the ones that serve as either real or ideal destinations for large numbers of working professionals: "If it's good enough for The New York Times, it's good enough for me." What role, if any,

Posted at 8:21 PM |  by Unknown
This are Tips for Writing for the Web Text Formatting

Short Paragraphs :> A 100-word paragraph looks pretty long on a Web page. Long paragraphs send a
signal to the reader: This will require effort. The writer expected you to have a lot of spare time. Sit down and read awhile. Short paragraphs send a different message: I'm easy! This won't take long at all! Read me!

Headings > The heading at the top of the page should make absolutely clear what the page contains or concerns. The text under the heading must not repeat the heading information (see redundancy, below right). Subheadings > If the page text exceeds 300 words, subheadings will help the reader scan the  age efficiently and happily.

Boldface > Depending on the content, words or phrases in boldface can help readers find what they want. Combining boldface and subheadings could lead to visual noise, so do not overdo it. Combining links and boldface text in the same paragraph could have the same unsightly result.

Lists > Numbered, billeted or other indented lists help the reader make sense of the information on the page. In many print contexts, lists would look ugly and thus are not used. On Web pages, lists work well in almost all contexts. Like paragraphs, lists appeal more to the reader when they are short.

Text Content

Brevity > Write tight. Omit all unnecessary words.*
Sentence Structure > be straightforward. While a meandering introductory clause may seem like a good idea to you, the reader might stop reading -- before she gets to the heart of your sentence.

Active Verbs > It is easy to write with passive verbs (am, is, are, has, have). Using active verbs makes the writer work harder -- but the reader benefits. The writer also benefits, because the reader stays interested. Passive verbs bore readers. Bored readers leave.

Say What You Mean > Try saying it out loud before you write it. We tend to speak more directly than
we write. We get to the point more quickly, too, when we can see the listener's eyes glazing over.
Redundancy > Reading the same information twice wastes a person's time Links

What They Say > Link text should not break any of the rules given for text (at left). A link must give the reader a reasonable expectation of what she will get when she clicks. Linked phrases such as "click here" or "Web page" do not provide helpful information.

What They Do > A link that does not open something or take the user to a new Web page seems to be a
broken link. When the link will take the user to a different place on the same page, or open a media player, give the user a cue.

How They Look > A long phrase (more than about five words) can be hard to read, or just ugly, when
underlined and/or in a highlight color. Links that are not underlined and do not appear in a different color from the surrounding text are almost impossible for the users to see.

Tips for Writing for the Web Text Formatting

This are Tips for Writing for the Web Text Formatting

Short Paragraphs :> A 100-word paragraph looks pretty long on a Web page. Long paragraphs send a
signal to the reader: This will require effort. The writer expected you to have a lot of spare time. Sit down and read awhile. Short paragraphs send a different message: I'm easy! This won't take long at all! Read me!

Headings > The heading at the top of the page should make absolutely clear what the page contains or concerns. The text under the heading must not repeat the heading information (see redundancy, below right). Subheadings > If the page text exceeds 300 words, subheadings will help the reader scan the  age efficiently and happily.

Boldface > Depending on the content, words or phrases in boldface can help readers find what they want. Combining boldface and subheadings could lead to visual noise, so do not overdo it. Combining links and boldface text in the same paragraph could have the same unsightly result.

Lists > Numbered, billeted or other indented lists help the reader make sense of the information on the page. In many print contexts, lists would look ugly and thus are not used. On Web pages, lists work well in almost all contexts. Like paragraphs, lists appeal more to the reader when they are short.

Text Content

Brevity > Write tight. Omit all unnecessary words.*
Sentence Structure > be straightforward. While a meandering introductory clause may seem like a good idea to you, the reader might stop reading -- before she gets to the heart of your sentence.

Active Verbs > It is easy to write with passive verbs (am, is, are, has, have). Using active verbs makes the writer work harder -- but the reader benefits. The writer also benefits, because the reader stays interested. Passive verbs bore readers. Bored readers leave.

Say What You Mean > Try saying it out loud before you write it. We tend to speak more directly than
we write. We get to the point more quickly, too, when we can see the listener's eyes glazing over.
Redundancy > Reading the same information twice wastes a person's time Links

What They Say > Link text should not break any of the rules given for text (at left). A link must give the reader a reasonable expectation of what she will get when she clicks. Linked phrases such as "click here" or "Web page" do not provide helpful information.

What They Do > A link that does not open something or take the user to a new Web page seems to be a
broken link. When the link will take the user to a different place on the same page, or open a media player, give the user a cue.

How They Look > A long phrase (more than about five words) can be hard to read, or just ugly, when
underlined and/or in a highlight color. Links that are not underlined and do not appear in a different color from the surrounding text are almost impossible for the users to see.

Posted at 8:13 PM |  by Unknown
Reader/Writer Relationship Changing Using these principles, an online news story becomes more like a Sunday package with related sidebars than a simple news story. Whether the story contains links to other Web pages or links to topics within the same page, nonlinear structure changes the writer- reader relationship. The writer relinquishes control over the information to the reader. Sven Birkerts, author of The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age, says hypertext "changes the entire system of power upon which the literary experience has been predicated.” Once a reader is enabled to collaborate, participate or in any way engage the text as an empowered player who has some say in the outcome of the game, the core assumptions of reading are called into question," Birkerts writes.

The imagination is liberated from the constraints of being guided at every step by the author." But giving the reader freedom of choice in paths to follow can disrupt comprehension. Birkerts describes his experience of reading a hypertext fiction story created in chunks and links to different sections as a constant interruption: "The reading surface was fractured, rendered collage-like by the appearance of starred keywords and suddenly materialized menu boxes."

Reader/Writer Relationship Changing

Reader/Writer Relationship Changing Using these principles, an online news story becomes more like a Sunday package with related sidebars than a simple news story. Whether the story contains links to other Web pages or links to topics within the same page, nonlinear structure changes the writer- reader relationship. The writer relinquishes control over the information to the reader. Sven Birkerts, author of The Gutenberg Elegies: The Fate of Reading in an Electronic Age, says hypertext "changes the entire system of power upon which the literary experience has been predicated.” Once a reader is enabled to collaborate, participate or in any way engage the text as an empowered player who has some say in the outcome of the game, the core assumptions of reading are called into question," Birkerts writes.

The imagination is liberated from the constraints of being guided at every step by the author." But giving the reader freedom of choice in paths to follow can disrupt comprehension. Birkerts describes his experience of reading a hypertext fiction story created in chunks and links to different sections as a constant interruption: "The reading surface was fractured, rendered collage-like by the appearance of starred keywords and suddenly materialized menu boxes."

Posted at 8:02 PM |  by Unknown
How to Plan the Story In Online Journalism ? In a major online media site such as CNN, planning involves a team of a writer, editor, and technical staff - including a multimedia specialist. Jeff Garrard, executive producer of CNN Interactive, says the planning process begins by listing the stories to be covered on a laminated white board like an oldfashioned blackboard. "It doesn't crash," he quips. Then a writer and associate producer team up. The writer sifts through wires, CNN reports and video feeds. The associate producer tracks down multimedia elements and consults with a multimedia designer. A Web editor then searches the Internet for appropriate links. A writer for a small online news site or even a major online newspaper may have to consider those elements without such a support team. Some questions to consider for planning: Does the background for the story lend itself to links to separate Web pages?
Should background or related elements be presented as a timeline or visually instead of text? Should multimedia elements, such as audio or video, accompany the story? Does the story lend itself to discussion questions or other interactive elements that will involve readers?
What visual elements does the story need: maps, photos, etc.?
Who needs to be involved early in the process: Web editors, designers, multimedia specialists?
• Back to topics menu
• Gathering Information
Reporting for the Web involves gathering material for brief and in-depth presentation. Even if a site doesn't feature audio and video now, it probably will in the future. Robin Palley, former Web editor for
the online Philadelphia Inquirer and Philadelphia Daily News, says writing for the Web has to start with reporting for the online site. Palley says print reporters should take tape recorders and computer disks to a news event. They should tape interviews for sound bites and ask if a full text of a speech or a complete list of science fair winners is available in computer form to post on the Web, she says. Reporters also need to gather information to update the story or plan the next step. A follow-up story could be posted on the Web in an hour rather then waiting for the next broadcast or print edition. Every news Web site becomes more like the all-day television or online news sites of CNN Interactive and MSNBC. Competition of online news sites and the need to be current are forcing a return to the days when newspapers were published all day long, Palley says. "I think the time will come when we will need a rewrite desk."
• Back to topics menu
• Organizing Information
• Nonlinear stories pose enormous organizational challenges.
Should they be written in chunks linked to other Web pages?
Should they be written in one long screen with or without links to internal topics?
Before writers craft the story, they should outline. In online storytelling the word "outline" has been replaced by a more palatable term: story boarding. And this is a crucial step in online writing. A storyboard is a diagram like an organizational chart. Each chunk of the story is a box on the chart, including audio and visual elements. The storyboard is a concept borrowed from film or cartooning where each panel of the cartoon is a box in the diagram showing the sequence. Related Web pages for background and other elements are parts of the storyboard.

Dividing the story into subtopics is another way to envision its parts, even if it will be presented as one complete story. Leah Gentry, editorial director of the online Los Angeles Times, describes the nonlinear storytelling process as deconstructing and reconstructing a story. She suggests: Deconstruct: Divide your story into component pieces. Look for similarities and relationships between the pieces. Group those that are similar. Reconstruct: Then use a storyboard to diagram the relationships between the groupings. It doesn't have to be fancy, Gentry says. "Mostly I scribble on paper. It becomes a blueprint for your site." "Every story has a micro element, the part of the story that must be linear," she
says. "For example, a man walks into a room and is shot. The man must have walked into the room before he can be hit with the bullet, so that sentence is the micro story, a linear part that explains what the story is about. It could be a sentence or paragraph similar to a nut graph or several paragraphs." The macro story is the rest of it -- contextual and related information -- in an order the reader can choose. Gentry say a story also works using a point of view strategy. A story could contain a cast of characters, and the story could be told several times filtered through the eyes of each character.
Not all parts of the story have to be text, Gentry says. Images or multimedia elements can also tell the story. But she warns against using technology for technology's sake. "It must furtherstorytelling." she says. "Anything that doesn't is just noise and it gets in the way of information." A storyboard might look like this:

Planning the Story In Online Journalism

How to Plan the Story In Online Journalism ? In a major online media site such as CNN, planning involves a team of a writer, editor, and technical staff - including a multimedia specialist. Jeff Garrard, executive producer of CNN Interactive, says the planning process begins by listing the stories to be covered on a laminated white board like an oldfashioned blackboard. "It doesn't crash," he quips. Then a writer and associate producer team up. The writer sifts through wires, CNN reports and video feeds. The associate producer tracks down multimedia elements and consults with a multimedia designer. A Web editor then searches the Internet for appropriate links. A writer for a small online news site or even a major online newspaper may have to consider those elements without such a support team. Some questions to consider for planning: Does the background for the story lend itself to links to separate Web pages?
Should background or related elements be presented as a timeline or visually instead of text? Should multimedia elements, such as audio or video, accompany the story? Does the story lend itself to discussion questions or other interactive elements that will involve readers?
What visual elements does the story need: maps, photos, etc.?
Who needs to be involved early in the process: Web editors, designers, multimedia specialists?
• Back to topics menu
• Gathering Information
Reporting for the Web involves gathering material for brief and in-depth presentation. Even if a site doesn't feature audio and video now, it probably will in the future. Robin Palley, former Web editor for
the online Philadelphia Inquirer and Philadelphia Daily News, says writing for the Web has to start with reporting for the online site. Palley says print reporters should take tape recorders and computer disks to a news event. They should tape interviews for sound bites and ask if a full text of a speech or a complete list of science fair winners is available in computer form to post on the Web, she says. Reporters also need to gather information to update the story or plan the next step. A follow-up story could be posted on the Web in an hour rather then waiting for the next broadcast or print edition. Every news Web site becomes more like the all-day television or online news sites of CNN Interactive and MSNBC. Competition of online news sites and the need to be current are forcing a return to the days when newspapers were published all day long, Palley says. "I think the time will come when we will need a rewrite desk."
• Back to topics menu
• Organizing Information
• Nonlinear stories pose enormous organizational challenges.
Should they be written in chunks linked to other Web pages?
Should they be written in one long screen with or without links to internal topics?
Before writers craft the story, they should outline. In online storytelling the word "outline" has been replaced by a more palatable term: story boarding. And this is a crucial step in online writing. A storyboard is a diagram like an organizational chart. Each chunk of the story is a box on the chart, including audio and visual elements. The storyboard is a concept borrowed from film or cartooning where each panel of the cartoon is a box in the diagram showing the sequence. Related Web pages for background and other elements are parts of the storyboard.

Dividing the story into subtopics is another way to envision its parts, even if it will be presented as one complete story. Leah Gentry, editorial director of the online Los Angeles Times, describes the nonlinear storytelling process as deconstructing and reconstructing a story. She suggests: Deconstruct: Divide your story into component pieces. Look for similarities and relationships between the pieces. Group those that are similar. Reconstruct: Then use a storyboard to diagram the relationships between the groupings. It doesn't have to be fancy, Gentry says. "Mostly I scribble on paper. It becomes a blueprint for your site." "Every story has a micro element, the part of the story that must be linear," she
says. "For example, a man walks into a room and is shot. The man must have walked into the room before he can be hit with the bullet, so that sentence is the micro story, a linear part that explains what the story is about. It could be a sentence or paragraph similar to a nut graph or several paragraphs." The macro story is the rest of it -- contextual and related information -- in an order the reader can choose. Gentry say a story also works using a point of view strategy. A story could contain a cast of characters, and the story could be told several times filtered through the eyes of each character.
Not all parts of the story have to be text, Gentry says. Images or multimedia elements can also tell the story. But she warns against using technology for technology's sake. "It must furtherstorytelling." she says. "Anything that doesn't is just noise and it gets in the way of information." A storyboard might look like this:

Posted at 7:33 PM |  by Unknown
Writing For The Web Study Good writing still begets good reading. Style should be dictated by content. Usability studies suggest the inverted pyramid to facilitate scanners. But if writers are trying to entice reading, other styles must be explored. Experiments with writing on the Web involve many fiction sites, and fiction is not written in inverted pyramid style. The Web offers a chance to be as eclectic in writing styles as it is in its reading population. One size does not fit all! Here are some tips that can be used for any style of online writing: Write a discussion question first, whether you will use it or not. That will help you create your focus and insert a context that will relate to readers. You can move the discussion question to the end later. Write a
nut graph at the top of your story as a teaser. This will help you put your focus high in the story. This graph can be used as a tool and removed later if it doesn't serve as a subhead. Use short sentences. Avoid connecting sentences with conjunctions. Use short paragraphs. Write topic subheads. Use lists to help the reader scan the page. Write in chunks of information that can be split into logical subtopics and related nonlinear parts. If stories are presented on different Web pages, treat each chunk as a separate story like a sidebar. Restate the context. Use the blocking technique when possible, especially in a basic news story. If a story has three or more sources, try to structure the story so each source is in one block and does not have to be used again. See next point. Avoid the journalistic convention of using last-name only on second reference. When readers scroll different screens or click to another chunk on a separate Web page, the second reference is confusing. Ignore journalistic taboos of writing questions for leads or transitions. They work well on the Web, especially at the end of chunks. Try cliffhanger endings if the story will link to another screen.

Writing For The Web Study, Nielsen conducted three studies from 1994 to 1997 with fellow researcher John Morkes. "Our studies suggest that current Web writing often does not support users in achieving their main goal: to find useful information as quickly as possible," they wrote. "We have come to realize that content is king in the user's mind," they concluded. "When a page comes up, users focus their attention on the center of the window where they read the body text before they bother looking over header bars or other navigational elements." In their study, "How to write for the Web," conducted in 1997, they tested four models of writing. Promotional writing using adjectives and "marketese" found on many commercial sites concise text with half the word count of the promotional model scannable layout, using bullets objective language, eliminating adjectives.The concise text was the most popular, followed by the scannable model with bullets and then the objective language model. None of the test subjects chose the promotional writing model, which impaired credibility. Based on this study, Nielsen and Morkes suggest these techniques for

writing scannable text on the Web:
Highlighted keywords
Meaningful subheads (not clever ones)
Bulleted lists (They help scanners move through information.)
One idea per paragraph
Inverted pyramid style
Half the word count (or less) than conventional writing.
The last study was one of the first to test different writing styles, and its results are significant. But it must be viewed with caution for online news writing. The 41 users in the study were tested for their ease of searching for information, recall, and subjective satisfaction, not for reading news. The test only involved different versions of a story about travel attractions in Nebraska. And, as the researchers note, content is still a major factor in readability. Other news writing styles can be as effective, as this Poynter report will show.

Writing For The Web Study

Writing For The Web Study Good writing still begets good reading. Style should be dictated by content. Usability studies suggest the inverted pyramid to facilitate scanners. But if writers are trying to entice reading, other styles must be explored. Experiments with writing on the Web involve many fiction sites, and fiction is not written in inverted pyramid style. The Web offers a chance to be as eclectic in writing styles as it is in its reading population. One size does not fit all! Here are some tips that can be used for any style of online writing: Write a discussion question first, whether you will use it or not. That will help you create your focus and insert a context that will relate to readers. You can move the discussion question to the end later. Write a
nut graph at the top of your story as a teaser. This will help you put your focus high in the story. This graph can be used as a tool and removed later if it doesn't serve as a subhead. Use short sentences. Avoid connecting sentences with conjunctions. Use short paragraphs. Write topic subheads. Use lists to help the reader scan the page. Write in chunks of information that can be split into logical subtopics and related nonlinear parts. If stories are presented on different Web pages, treat each chunk as a separate story like a sidebar. Restate the context. Use the blocking technique when possible, especially in a basic news story. If a story has three or more sources, try to structure the story so each source is in one block and does not have to be used again. See next point. Avoid the journalistic convention of using last-name only on second reference. When readers scroll different screens or click to another chunk on a separate Web page, the second reference is confusing. Ignore journalistic taboos of writing questions for leads or transitions. They work well on the Web, especially at the end of chunks. Try cliffhanger endings if the story will link to another screen.

Writing For The Web Study, Nielsen conducted three studies from 1994 to 1997 with fellow researcher John Morkes. "Our studies suggest that current Web writing often does not support users in achieving their main goal: to find useful information as quickly as possible," they wrote. "We have come to realize that content is king in the user's mind," they concluded. "When a page comes up, users focus their attention on the center of the window where they read the body text before they bother looking over header bars or other navigational elements." In their study, "How to write for the Web," conducted in 1997, they tested four models of writing. Promotional writing using adjectives and "marketese" found on many commercial sites concise text with half the word count of the promotional model scannable layout, using bullets objective language, eliminating adjectives.The concise text was the most popular, followed by the scannable model with bullets and then the objective language model. None of the test subjects chose the promotional writing model, which impaired credibility. Based on this study, Nielsen and Morkes suggest these techniques for

writing scannable text on the Web:
Highlighted keywords
Meaningful subheads (not clever ones)
Bulleted lists (They help scanners move through information.)
One idea per paragraph
Inverted pyramid style
Half the word count (or less) than conventional writing.
The last study was one of the first to test different writing styles, and its results are significant. But it must be viewed with caution for online news writing. The 41 users in the study were tested for their ease of searching for information, recall, and subjective satisfaction, not for reading news. The test only involved different versions of a story about travel attractions in Nebraska. And, as the researchers note, content is still a major factor in readability. Other news writing styles can be as effective, as this Poynter report will show.

Posted at 4:09 PM |  by Unknown
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