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Showing posts with label Information Technology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Information Technology. Show all posts
Ereaders are very popular these days. There are many popular and specific sites and stores which are good way to buy books easier. There are amazing online bookstores with cheap and low prices which attract the people more. And you can find amazing bargains online. There are heaps of websites and bookstores which are fabulous.

Amazon Kindle Store:
Amazon is one of the best online book store which has no competitors. Kindle is the best seller online. It offers wealth of new release many of them are completely free. Many magazines, Maps, eBooks, blogs and mountain of books are available in this store. This is the most powerful book store around. They are not concerned about their competitors. It built up its efficiency and low costs. Even it has benefit of mobile apps for ios, Android, Mac windows and many more books. This is the best seller for shopping of books on the internet. Collectively it has low prices and has a fantastic range.

Google eBooks:
Google eBook stores not important or attributed like Amazon or Barnes because it has no hardware reader directly but Google will fix this problem with the launching of the Iriver Story HD. Google also offer apps for web access to their growing catalog of literature. Google eBook store is also making partners and libraries for book purchasing and borrowing.
Online Stores


Nobel Nook and Barners Book Store:
This is the world’s greatest online bookstore. This is the best brand of books for shopping. It is developed by the America. This is all based upon Android. This is capable for different devices like wi-fi 3G WIRELESS. BARNES AND Nobel Nook eclipsed the Kindle recently because of most purchased ereader. The Nook store sports over 2 million books which are included best seller which also offer host of apps.

Kobo Books:
The service of this book store is impressive. It is not like other competitors like Amazon Kindle Store but you not have to lock specific device. Kobo also offers apps for Blackberry, Android. With help of this you also can download eBooks in Pub and pdf format.  So this ebook is more profitable.

Project Gutenberg:
In the competition of many other online stores. This book store is still strong in services. Its catalog eclipsed by many other competitors and it still going strong for literature books in the public domain. The service  has over 3600 completely free and DRM free. It can be read on multiple devices and it can be chosen the file format which works best.

Conclusion:
These are the best online book sellers which are not comparable and this can add greatest value in buying books online with low prices.

Top Five Online Stores to Buy Books

Ereaders are very popular these days. There are many popular and specific sites and stores which are good way to buy books easier. There are amazing online bookstores with cheap and low prices which attract the people more. And you can find amazing bargains online. There are heaps of websites and bookstores which are fabulous.

Amazon Kindle Store:
Amazon is one of the best online book store which has no competitors. Kindle is the best seller online. It offers wealth of new release many of them are completely free. Many magazines, Maps, eBooks, blogs and mountain of books are available in this store. This is the most powerful book store around. They are not concerned about their competitors. It built up its efficiency and low costs. Even it has benefit of mobile apps for ios, Android, Mac windows and many more books. This is the best seller for shopping of books on the internet. Collectively it has low prices and has a fantastic range.

Google eBooks:
Google eBook stores not important or attributed like Amazon or Barnes because it has no hardware reader directly but Google will fix this problem with the launching of the Iriver Story HD. Google also offer apps for web access to their growing catalog of literature. Google eBook store is also making partners and libraries for book purchasing and borrowing.
Online Stores


Nobel Nook and Barners Book Store:
This is the world’s greatest online bookstore. This is the best brand of books for shopping. It is developed by the America. This is all based upon Android. This is capable for different devices like wi-fi 3G WIRELESS. BARNES AND Nobel Nook eclipsed the Kindle recently because of most purchased ereader. The Nook store sports over 2 million books which are included best seller which also offer host of apps.

Kobo Books:
The service of this book store is impressive. It is not like other competitors like Amazon Kindle Store but you not have to lock specific device. Kobo also offers apps for Blackberry, Android. With help of this you also can download eBooks in Pub and pdf format.  So this ebook is more profitable.

Project Gutenberg:
In the competition of many other online stores. This book store is still strong in services. Its catalog eclipsed by many other competitors and it still going strong for literature books in the public domain. The service  has over 3600 completely free and DRM free. It can be read on multiple devices and it can be chosen the file format which works best.

Conclusion:
These are the best online book sellers which are not comparable and this can add greatest value in buying books online with low prices.

Posted at 11:59 PM |  by Unknown
As we know that the 3G and 4G spectrum has auctioned in Pakistan on 23 April 2014 by Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) Mobile communication services have become a necessary part of economic work and function, and the mobile telecommunication sector continues to offer extraordinary opportunities for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. As the technology develops, mobile services have the prospective of affecting a country’s economy by providing High-value 4G data services that are right to use via smart phones, tablets, and dongles that carry mobile data services to businesses and consumers.

In this article we will describe you the effects of 3G and 4G Internet on the economy of Pakistan. Auction of 3G licenses can bring a revolution in the fields of Education, Health, e-commerce, e-banking, Transportation, Utilities and the most important in the field of Information Technology in Pakistan. Due to high speed internet a mobile user will shift from text and voice services to data-driven services where a user can enjoy the feature of video calling and live streaming.
Economy of Pakistan

The software industry will take best benefit from the auction of 3G spectrum, because due to high speed and fully featured internet service the software development will raise beyond our expectations, developers will not have to wait longer as in the present situation. At the present time we have almost 1500 software companies, Two are on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE), 2 on the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (NASDAQ) and 1 on the Dubai International Financial Exchange (DIFX). These facts are before the arrival of 3G now we easily can imagine after this technology Pakistani Software Export Industry can boost the current GDP of the Pakistan.

In August 2013, a UK-based consultancy said Plum 3G could boost Pakistan’s GDP.The report more accomplished that: The government will be able to generate around PKR 23 billion to 70 billion additional tax revenue 3G could result in additional GDP value between 380 billion/PKR and 1,180 billion/PKR up to the beginning of 2020.If the next spectrum licenses are issued today, they can produce 900,000 new jobs till 2018.Direct revenue from 2.1GHz spectrum can be in between 100 to 180 billion PKR. Further delay in license auction could cost the GDP a loss of 5 billion rupees per month up to the next 7 years OR revenue loss of PKR 300 million per month. If we carry a traditional guess of 0.5% blow on GDP and suppose that impact will last for 3 years then Pakistan’s current GDP will increase by Rs. 40 billion in one year after auction, while a further Rs. 105 billion increase after second year of 3G auction and Rs. 210 billion at some stage in the third year of auction.

Thees new generation technology brings a bad news for internet service providers ISPs which are providing slow, poor and snail speed internet connectivity at high prices. In order to endure in cut through completion with 3G/4G companies, ISPs will have to provide better internet at lowest price to their customers. But the good news is that after the arrival of this technology the economic condition of Pakistan will definitely improve and will bring it to a brighter future. 

Effects of 3G 4G On The Economy of Pakistan

As we know that the 3G and 4G spectrum has auctioned in Pakistan on 23 April 2014 by Pakistan Telecommunication Authority (PTA) Mobile communication services have become a necessary part of economic work and function, and the mobile telecommunication sector continues to offer extraordinary opportunities for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. As the technology develops, mobile services have the prospective of affecting a country’s economy by providing High-value 4G data services that are right to use via smart phones, tablets, and dongles that carry mobile data services to businesses and consumers.

In this article we will describe you the effects of 3G and 4G Internet on the economy of Pakistan. Auction of 3G licenses can bring a revolution in the fields of Education, Health, e-commerce, e-banking, Transportation, Utilities and the most important in the field of Information Technology in Pakistan. Due to high speed internet a mobile user will shift from text and voice services to data-driven services where a user can enjoy the feature of video calling and live streaming.
Economy of Pakistan

The software industry will take best benefit from the auction of 3G spectrum, because due to high speed and fully featured internet service the software development will raise beyond our expectations, developers will not have to wait longer as in the present situation. At the present time we have almost 1500 software companies, Two are on the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE), 2 on the National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (NASDAQ) and 1 on the Dubai International Financial Exchange (DIFX). These facts are before the arrival of 3G now we easily can imagine after this technology Pakistani Software Export Industry can boost the current GDP of the Pakistan.

In August 2013, a UK-based consultancy said Plum 3G could boost Pakistan’s GDP.The report more accomplished that: The government will be able to generate around PKR 23 billion to 70 billion additional tax revenue 3G could result in additional GDP value between 380 billion/PKR and 1,180 billion/PKR up to the beginning of 2020.If the next spectrum licenses are issued today, they can produce 900,000 new jobs till 2018.Direct revenue from 2.1GHz spectrum can be in between 100 to 180 billion PKR. Further delay in license auction could cost the GDP a loss of 5 billion rupees per month up to the next 7 years OR revenue loss of PKR 300 million per month. If we carry a traditional guess of 0.5% blow on GDP and suppose that impact will last for 3 years then Pakistan’s current GDP will increase by Rs. 40 billion in one year after auction, while a further Rs. 105 billion increase after second year of 3G auction and Rs. 210 billion at some stage in the third year of auction.

Thees new generation technology brings a bad news for internet service providers ISPs which are providing slow, poor and snail speed internet connectivity at high prices. In order to endure in cut through completion with 3G/4G companies, ISPs will have to provide better internet at lowest price to their customers. But the good news is that after the arrival of this technology the economic condition of Pakistan will definitely improve and will bring it to a brighter future. 

Posted at 11:59 PM |  by Unknown
Everyone wants to play games online but it is difficult task to find out amazing online games websites but I have made out descriptive list of top 5 websites. Internet has provided us free online gaming facility. We don’t need to buy DVDs and install drivers or to update our PC. You just should have an internet connection and enjoy the world of entertainment. If you are searching for a website to play free online then it’s not a big deal just read this article. It will help you to find the best website. Followings are the top 5 website to play online games.

Miniclip.com
Now a day it is very famous due to its Action, arcade and pool games, its top 5 web games are 8 Ball Pool, Wrestle Jump, Free Running 2.Motocross Nitro and Zombinsanity which are very popular. It provides the option of multi-player. That is the reason why it is on top of list of top five websites.  Its also has the mobile version and iPhone user can play on miniclip.com Miniclip’s 8 ball pool is the most famous game on internet as well.
Play Free

AOL Games
AOL has millions of new games available on the world of internet. Most of the games on AOL  are comes from POGO. So you can’t be attacked by ads or pop-ups. AOL has games like card, tycoon, racing and board games and many more you can’t expect.
The main benefit of this games is its faster then other websites. You just need to be register on the site, sign up and enjoy the thrilling world of AOL. They also provides you the user community where you can chat with other users. AOL is included in top five websites to play due to above mentioned features and specs.

Games.com
Games.com has a variety of game you can like. It has Card, Puzzle, Casino, Word, Board, Action, Family, Sports and Strategy type games where you can enjoy a lot. It is powered by AOL and has so many downloadable games. It provides you registration where you can chat with other members who are online at that time. They also provides cash competitions for users. It is included in this list of top five websites, due to its unique feature of giving cash prizes to competitors.

Real Arcade
Real Arcade has millions of online game you can play and due to its diverse categories it is included in top five websites. By the process of registration you can open an account on this website but it is not compulsory. It has both downloadable and online games as well.  Real arcade provide you a chance to win cash prizes by playing & using Real Arcade account. Real arcade has puzzles, word, Mahjongg, arcade, action/adventure, card and the cash games.

Yahoo Games
Games.yahoo.com provides you millions of games without requiring you to go trough from different ads. Whenever you click a game it pop-up the ad but it also gives you the option to by pass the ad enjoy your game. Yahoo does not charge to play the only thing you need is a yahoo email i.d. Yahoo offers games like card, arcade, word, tile, board, video and skill games which defiantly will entertain you. Yahoo games is considered as most fastest server with best graphics so it is included in top five websites.Kings Road is the most famous on Yahoo Games.

Top 5 Websites to Play Free Online Games

Everyone wants to play games online but it is difficult task to find out amazing online games websites but I have made out descriptive list of top 5 websites. Internet has provided us free online gaming facility. We don’t need to buy DVDs and install drivers or to update our PC. You just should have an internet connection and enjoy the world of entertainment. If you are searching for a website to play free online then it’s not a big deal just read this article. It will help you to find the best website. Followings are the top 5 website to play online games.

Miniclip.com
Now a day it is very famous due to its Action, arcade and pool games, its top 5 web games are 8 Ball Pool, Wrestle Jump, Free Running 2.Motocross Nitro and Zombinsanity which are very popular. It provides the option of multi-player. That is the reason why it is on top of list of top five websites.  Its also has the mobile version and iPhone user can play on miniclip.com Miniclip’s 8 ball pool is the most famous game on internet as well.
Play Free

AOL Games
AOL has millions of new games available on the world of internet. Most of the games on AOL  are comes from POGO. So you can’t be attacked by ads or pop-ups. AOL has games like card, tycoon, racing and board games and many more you can’t expect.
The main benefit of this games is its faster then other websites. You just need to be register on the site, sign up and enjoy the thrilling world of AOL. They also provides you the user community where you can chat with other users. AOL is included in top five websites to play due to above mentioned features and specs.

Games.com
Games.com has a variety of game you can like. It has Card, Puzzle, Casino, Word, Board, Action, Family, Sports and Strategy type games where you can enjoy a lot. It is powered by AOL and has so many downloadable games. It provides you registration where you can chat with other members who are online at that time. They also provides cash competitions for users. It is included in this list of top five websites, due to its unique feature of giving cash prizes to competitors.

Real Arcade
Real Arcade has millions of online game you can play and due to its diverse categories it is included in top five websites. By the process of registration you can open an account on this website but it is not compulsory. It has both downloadable and online games as well.  Real arcade provide you a chance to win cash prizes by playing & using Real Arcade account. Real arcade has puzzles, word, Mahjongg, arcade, action/adventure, card and the cash games.

Yahoo Games
Games.yahoo.com provides you millions of games without requiring you to go trough from different ads. Whenever you click a game it pop-up the ad but it also gives you the option to by pass the ad enjoy your game. Yahoo does not charge to play the only thing you need is a yahoo email i.d. Yahoo offers games like card, arcade, word, tile, board, video and skill games which defiantly will entertain you. Yahoo games is considered as most fastest server with best graphics so it is included in top five websites.Kings Road is the most famous on Yahoo Games.

Posted at 11:59 PM |  by Unknown
SONY LAUNCHES ONLINE VIRTUAL WORLD FOR PLAYSTATION 3
Sony Launches New Online Virtual World For PlayStation 3 Sony said it would launch its online 3-D social networking service, Home, ending months of delay in the  long-awaited service for users of the company's PlayStation 3 video-game console. Home is similar to Linden Lab's Second Life in that it lets people create virtual characters, or avatars, to interact in cyberspace. PlayStation 3 users will be able to join the virtual world through a free software download. Home is the latest online service for the PS 3. Sony recently added video downloads to the PlayStation N e t w o r k , w h i c h , according to the company, has 15 million s u b s c r i b e r s w o r l d w i d e .

Nevertheless, Sony is seen as behind rival Microsoft, which makes the Xbox 360, in launching online gaming and video download services. In addition, Nintendo, which launched its Wii video-game console the same month as Sony launched PS 3, November 2006, has outsold Sony more than 2-to-1. Nintendo has sold 34.5 million units worldwide, compared with Sony's 16.8 million units. Besides offering mini-games, videos, and special events, Home will make it possible for users to create their own social networks and set up meetings in their own virtual apartments or in public gatherings. Home will offer instant messaging, voice, and video communications. Sony first announced Home in March 2007, saying it would launch the service later that year.

Sony Launches Online Virtual World For PlayStation 3

SONY LAUNCHES ONLINE VIRTUAL WORLD FOR PLAYSTATION 3
Sony Launches New Online Virtual World For PlayStation 3 Sony said it would launch its online 3-D social networking service, Home, ending months of delay in the  long-awaited service for users of the company's PlayStation 3 video-game console. Home is similar to Linden Lab's Second Life in that it lets people create virtual characters, or avatars, to interact in cyberspace. PlayStation 3 users will be able to join the virtual world through a free software download. Home is the latest online service for the PS 3. Sony recently added video downloads to the PlayStation N e t w o r k , w h i c h , according to the company, has 15 million s u b s c r i b e r s w o r l d w i d e .

Nevertheless, Sony is seen as behind rival Microsoft, which makes the Xbox 360, in launching online gaming and video download services. In addition, Nintendo, which launched its Wii video-game console the same month as Sony launched PS 3, November 2006, has outsold Sony more than 2-to-1. Nintendo has sold 34.5 million units worldwide, compared with Sony's 16.8 million units. Besides offering mini-games, videos, and special events, Home will make it possible for users to create their own social networks and set up meetings in their own virtual apartments or in public gatherings. Home will offer instant messaging, voice, and video communications. Sony first announced Home in March 2007, saying it would launch the service later that year.

Posted at 7:55 AM |  by Unknown
Download Xtravo Explorer PAKISTANI  WEB BROWSER
WEB BROWSER BY A PAKISTANI TEENAGER A 19 year old , Sheikh Imran Ahmed, has designed a web browser 'Xtravo Explorer' Click Here For Free Download which is powered by Microsoft Internet Explorer. A statement said that the beta version of Xtravo has grabbed the attention of the Internet users within few days of its release on www.jawoco.com and has been picked up/reviewed by international software websites such as www.softpedia.com. It said that the browser by the Pakistani teenager is being downloaded on a massive scale and is receiving good reviews from its users who claim it to be very user friendly. According to the users of Xtravo Explorer, even though it's powered by IE shell engine, it is comparatively better in performance, offers handy options which no other browser offers to date and is faster. It offers tab browsing, image grabbing and a secure environment which blocks pop-ups and unwanted pages. Imran has just completed A level and is interested in pursuing further studies abroad. Xtravo Explorer is just a 1 MB download, and does require the .NET Framework. It can be downloaded from: www.softpedia.com HEADPHONES MAY HINDER PACEMAKERS Headphones used with pacemakers. A pacemaker sends electrical impulses to the heart to speed up or slow cardiac rhythm. The magnet, however, could make it deliver a signal no matter what the heart rate is, possibly leading to palpitations or arrhythmia. 

Download Xtravo Explorer Pakistani Web Browser

Download Xtravo Explorer PAKISTANI  WEB BROWSER
WEB BROWSER BY A PAKISTANI TEENAGER A 19 year old , Sheikh Imran Ahmed, has designed a web browser 'Xtravo Explorer' Click Here For Free Download which is powered by Microsoft Internet Explorer. A statement said that the beta version of Xtravo has grabbed the attention of the Internet users within few days of its release on www.jawoco.com and has been picked up/reviewed by international software websites such as www.softpedia.com. It said that the browser by the Pakistani teenager is being downloaded on a massive scale and is receiving good reviews from its users who claim it to be very user friendly. According to the users of Xtravo Explorer, even though it's powered by IE shell engine, it is comparatively better in performance, offers handy options which no other browser offers to date and is faster. It offers tab browsing, image grabbing and a secure environment which blocks pop-ups and unwanted pages. Imran has just completed A level and is interested in pursuing further studies abroad. Xtravo Explorer is just a 1 MB download, and does require the .NET Framework. It can be downloaded from: www.softpedia.com HEADPHONES MAY HINDER PACEMAKERS Headphones used with pacemakers. A pacemaker sends electrical impulses to the heart to speed up or slow cardiac rhythm. The magnet, however, could make it deliver a signal no matter what the heart rate is, possibly leading to palpitations or arrhythmia. 

Posted at 8:14 AM |  by Unknown
GOOGLE CHROME GETS RBETA TAG
TAG Google pulled the "beta" test label off Chrome, putting a stamp of approval on its Web browser released in a direct challenge to Microsoft's Internet Explorer. The California online search titan known for leaving new software offerings in beta, or test, modes for what seems like ages says Chrome proved its merits, and in a relatively brief 100 days. Google's free web-based Gmail service still bears a "beta" label even though it was launched nearly five years ago. Chrome has gone through 15 iterations since its launch with fixes and modifications engineered based o n feedback from some of the more than 10 million people worldwide that have started using the browser. "We're excited to announce that with today's 50th release we are taking off the 'beta' label," Google engineering director Linus Upson and product management vice president Sundar Pichai wrote in an online posting. "We have removed the beta label as our goals for stability and performance have been met but our work is far from done." Improvements which users called for, and reportedly got, include better video viewing, faster data loading, and strict privacy and security controls. Google and Microsoft have been in an escalating war, with the Redmond, Washington-based software goliath striving to unseat Google as king of Internet search and advertising. Google, meanwhile, is striking at the heart of Microsoft's empire by offering software free online as services supported by advertising.

Google Chrome Gets Rid Of The Beta Tag

GOOGLE CHROME GETS RBETA TAG
TAG Google pulled the "beta" test label off Chrome, putting a stamp of approval on its Web browser released in a direct challenge to Microsoft's Internet Explorer. The California online search titan known for leaving new software offerings in beta, or test, modes for what seems like ages says Chrome proved its merits, and in a relatively brief 100 days. Google's free web-based Gmail service still bears a "beta" label even though it was launched nearly five years ago. Chrome has gone through 15 iterations since its launch with fixes and modifications engineered based o n feedback from some of the more than 10 million people worldwide that have started using the browser. "We're excited to announce that with today's 50th release we are taking off the 'beta' label," Google engineering director Linus Upson and product management vice president Sundar Pichai wrote in an online posting. "We have removed the beta label as our goals for stability and performance have been met but our work is far from done." Improvements which users called for, and reportedly got, include better video viewing, faster data loading, and strict privacy and security controls. Google and Microsoft have been in an escalating war, with the Redmond, Washington-based software goliath striving to unseat Google as king of Internet search and advertising. Google, meanwhile, is striking at the heart of Microsoft's empire by offering software free online as services supported by advertising.

Posted at 8:38 AM |  by Unknown
Misuse of Electronic System or Electronic Device Whoever produces, possesses, sells, procures, transports, imports, distributes or otherwise makes available an electronic system or electronic device, including a computer program, designed or adapted primarily for the purpose of committing any of the offences established under this Ordinance or a password, access code, or similar data by which the whole or any part of an electronic system or electronic device is capable of being accessed or its functionality compromised or reverse engineered with the intent that it be used for the purpose of committing any of the offences established under this Ordinance, is said to commit offence of misuse of electronic system or electronic devices:
Whoever commits the offence described in sub-section (1) shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

Misuse of Electronic System or Electronic Device

Misuse of Electronic System or Electronic Device Whoever produces, possesses, sells, procures, transports, imports, distributes or otherwise makes available an electronic system or electronic device, including a computer program, designed or adapted primarily for the purpose of committing any of the offences established under this Ordinance or a password, access code, or similar data by which the whole or any part of an electronic system or electronic device is capable of being accessed or its functionality compromised or reverse engineered with the intent that it be used for the purpose of committing any of the offences established under this Ordinance, is said to commit offence of misuse of electronic system or electronic devices:
Whoever commits the offence described in sub-section (1) shall be punishable with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

Posted at 8:34 PM |  by Unknown
Malicious code Means Whoever willfully writes, offers, makes available, distributes or transmits malicious code through an electronic system or electronic device, with intent to cause harm to any electronic system or resulting in the corruption, destruction, alteration, suppression, theft or loss of data commits the offence of malicious code. Whoever commits the offence specified in sub-section (1) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine or with both.
Misuse of encryption Means Whoever for the purpose of commission of an offence or concealment of incriminating evidence, knowingly and willfully encrypts any incriminating communication or data contained in electronic system relating to that crime or incriminating evidence, commits the offence of misuse of encryption shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both.

What Is The Malicious code And Misuse of Encryption

Malicious code Means Whoever willfully writes, offers, makes available, distributes or transmits malicious code through an electronic system or electronic device, with intent to cause harm to any electronic system or resulting in the corruption, destruction, alteration, suppression, theft or loss of data commits the offence of malicious code. Whoever commits the offence specified in sub-section (1) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine or with both.
Misuse of encryption Means Whoever for the purpose of commission of an offence or concealment of incriminating evidence, knowingly and willfully encrypts any incriminating communication or data contained in electronic system relating to that crime or incriminating evidence, commits the offence of misuse of encryption shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both.

Posted at 8:30 PM |  by Unknown
Spamming Means Whoever transmits harmful, fraudulent, misleading, illegal or unsolicited electronic messages in bulk to any person without the express permission of the recipient, or causes any electronic system to show any such message or involves in falsified online user account registration or falsified domain name registration for commercial purpose commits the offence of spamming.
Whoever commits the offence of spamming as described in sub-section (1) shall be punishable with fine not exceeding fifty thousand rupees if he commits this offence of spamming for the first time and for every subsequent. Commission of offence of spamming he shall be punished with imprisonment of three months or with fine, or with both.
Spoofing Means Whoever establishes a website, or sends an electronic message with a counterfeit source intended to be believed by the recipient or visitor or its electronic system to be an authentic source with intent to gain unauthorized access or obtain valuable information which later can be used for any unlawful purposes commits the offence of spooling. Whoever commits the offence of spooling specified in sub-section (1) Shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

What Is The Spamming And Spoofing?

Spamming Means Whoever transmits harmful, fraudulent, misleading, illegal or unsolicited electronic messages in bulk to any person without the express permission of the recipient, or causes any electronic system to show any such message or involves in falsified online user account registration or falsified domain name registration for commercial purpose commits the offence of spamming.
Whoever commits the offence of spamming as described in sub-section (1) shall be punishable with fine not exceeding fifty thousand rupees if he commits this offence of spamming for the first time and for every subsequent. Commission of offence of spamming he shall be punished with imprisonment of three months or with fine, or with both.
Spoofing Means Whoever establishes a website, or sends an electronic message with a counterfeit source intended to be believed by the recipient or visitor or its electronic system to be an authentic source with intent to gain unauthorized access or obtain valuable information which later can be used for any unlawful purposes commits the offence of spooling. Whoever commits the offence of spooling specified in sub-section (1) Shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.

Posted at 8:28 PM |  by Unknown
Unauthorized interception Means Whoever without lawful authority intercepts by technical means, transmissions of data to, from or within an electronic system including electromagnetic emissions from an electronic system carrying such data commits the offence of unauthorized interception?
Whoever commits the offence of unauthorized interception described in subsection (1) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine not exceeding five hundred thousand rupees, or with both Unauthorized interception.

Unauthorized access to code
Whoever discloses or obtains any password, access as to code, system design or any other means of gaining access to any electronic system or data with intent to obtain wrongful gain, do reverse engineering or cause wrongful loss to any person or for any other unlawful purpose shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with, or with both.

Unauthorized interception and Unauthorized Access to code

Unauthorized interception Means Whoever without lawful authority intercepts by technical means, transmissions of data to, from or within an electronic system including electromagnetic emissions from an electronic system carrying such data commits the offence of unauthorized interception?
Whoever commits the offence of unauthorized interception described in subsection (1) shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine not exceeding five hundred thousand rupees, or with both Unauthorized interception.

Unauthorized access to code
Whoever discloses or obtains any password, access as to code, system design or any other means of gaining access to any electronic system or data with intent to obtain wrongful gain, do reverse engineering or cause wrongful loss to any person or for any other unlawful purpose shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years, or with, or with both.

Posted at 8:22 PM |  by Unknown
Development Of Press In Pakistan
The development of the institution of press in Pakistan as a whole is unprecedented. Despite difficult problems the press has developed a great deal in the following directions:
1. Number of newspapers
At the time of partition the total number of Muslim newspapers and periodicals in the areas forming Pakistan did not exceed 200. Now there are about 1500 newspapers and journals.
2. Increase in circulation
Before independence the average circulation of a daily newspaper was three to four thousand. Now the established newspapers have circulations ranging between hundred fifty thousand and two hundred thousand. Even the less established newspapers have a circulation of about 25000 copies. 3. The pages and the contents of the newspapers and periodicals have substantially increased. 4. All newspapers publish special editions almost every day. They also publish special Friday magazines. 5. The make-up techniques have totally changed. With the arrival of computer in major newspapers a revolution has taken place in the entire production process.
6. Many newspapers and journals have commercially consolidated their position.
7. The volume of advertisements has increased manifold.
8. Regional press has also developed a great deal.
9. A new kind of journalism has emerged in the form of digest journalism, agricultural journalism, medical journalism, etc. All major organizations publish house journals.
10. Major publishing houses are now running chain newspapers. They are publishing editions from several centres simultaneously. Dawn, the Pakistan Times, Nation, Frontier Post, Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt and Mashriq are appearing from more than one centre.
11. Urdu press has achieved phenomenal progress.
12. The salary structure of working journalists has improved to a great extent. Their working conditions are also far better now.
13. Urdu newspapers have switched over to the electronic system. The production techniques have also changed. Before 1947 the readership of the Urdu press was limited. Now the newspapers cater to the tastes of al classes of people.They reflect the wishes and aspirations of the people in general. Special pages for women, children, sports, artists and youth are published almost every day which has given impetus to social change. Unlike the past, the press does not serve the elite only. Talented persons from all walks of life find representation in the newspapers. The new spirit of journalism aims at all-round progress of society. One major change is visible in our newspapers. Generally they can survive without politics as they have survived lengthy martial law regimes. The extensive coverage provided by newspapers to peoples' activities in all segments of society reflects the expanding role of media in our country. Radio and T.V. networks are also expanding rapidly. Simultaneous expansion in public relations and advertising is complementary to' the growth of the press. There is unusual stress on national consciousness. The problems of the people are consistently highlighted.

Development Of Press In Pakistan

Development Of Press In Pakistan
The development of the institution of press in Pakistan as a whole is unprecedented. Despite difficult problems the press has developed a great deal in the following directions:
1. Number of newspapers
At the time of partition the total number of Muslim newspapers and periodicals in the areas forming Pakistan did not exceed 200. Now there are about 1500 newspapers and journals.
2. Increase in circulation
Before independence the average circulation of a daily newspaper was three to four thousand. Now the established newspapers have circulations ranging between hundred fifty thousand and two hundred thousand. Even the less established newspapers have a circulation of about 25000 copies. 3. The pages and the contents of the newspapers and periodicals have substantially increased. 4. All newspapers publish special editions almost every day. They also publish special Friday magazines. 5. The make-up techniques have totally changed. With the arrival of computer in major newspapers a revolution has taken place in the entire production process.
6. Many newspapers and journals have commercially consolidated their position.
7. The volume of advertisements has increased manifold.
8. Regional press has also developed a great deal.
9. A new kind of journalism has emerged in the form of digest journalism, agricultural journalism, medical journalism, etc. All major organizations publish house journals.
10. Major publishing houses are now running chain newspapers. They are publishing editions from several centres simultaneously. Dawn, the Pakistan Times, Nation, Frontier Post, Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt and Mashriq are appearing from more than one centre.
11. Urdu press has achieved phenomenal progress.
12. The salary structure of working journalists has improved to a great extent. Their working conditions are also far better now.
13. Urdu newspapers have switched over to the electronic system. The production techniques have also changed. Before 1947 the readership of the Urdu press was limited. Now the newspapers cater to the tastes of al classes of people.They reflect the wishes and aspirations of the people in general. Special pages for women, children, sports, artists and youth are published almost every day which has given impetus to social change. Unlike the past, the press does not serve the elite only. Talented persons from all walks of life find representation in the newspapers. The new spirit of journalism aims at all-round progress of society. One major change is visible in our newspapers. Generally they can survive without politics as they have survived lengthy martial law regimes. The extensive coverage provided by newspapers to peoples' activities in all segments of society reflects the expanding role of media in our country. Radio and T.V. networks are also expanding rapidly. Simultaneous expansion in public relations and advertising is complementary to' the growth of the press. There is unusual stress on national consciousness. The problems of the people are consistently highlighted.

Posted at 8:20 PM |  by Unknown
Definition of Digital Divide and Forms The term digital divide refers to the gap between those people with effective access to digital and information technology and those without access to it. It includes the imbalances in physical access to technology, as well as the imbalances in resources and skills needed to effectively participate as a digital citizen. In others words, it’s the unequal access by some members of the society to information and communications technology, and the unequal acquisition of related skills. Groups often discussed in the context of a digital divide include socioeconomic (rich/poor), racial (white/minority), or geographical (urban/rural). The term global digital divide refers to differences in technology access between countries.

Many expressions were used to describe the dichotomy of people’s participation or not in the Information Society such as information poor/ rich or have/ have not, but the most widely spread now is the "Digital Divide". Used by most international organizations, this expression has become the reference term. At first, some narrower definitions of the digital divide were focused only on access to computers and Internet but access alone does not bridge the technology gap. As a result, definitions are much wider today. "The term 'digital divide' describes the fact that the world can be divided into people who do and people who don't have access to - and the capability to use - modern information technology, such as the telephone, television, or the Internet. The digital divide exists between those in cities and those in rural areas. It also exists between the educated and the uneducated, between economic classes, and, globally, between the more and less industrially developed nations".

• "The digital divide is the "Differences based on race, gender, geography, economic status, and physical ability:
• In access to information, the Internet and other information technologies and services
• In skills, it refers to the gap between knowledge, abilities to use internet and abilities to use technologies".
There are two different forms of Digital divide, one between countries but also between groups within a country. Bridges organization extensive report puts it in these terms "Real disparities exist in access to and use of information and communications technology (ICT) between countries (the "international digital divide or global digital divide") and between groups within countries (the "domestic digital divide")"

Definition of Digital Divide and Forms

Definition of Digital Divide and Forms The term digital divide refers to the gap between those people with effective access to digital and information technology and those without access to it. It includes the imbalances in physical access to technology, as well as the imbalances in resources and skills needed to effectively participate as a digital citizen. In others words, it’s the unequal access by some members of the society to information and communications technology, and the unequal acquisition of related skills. Groups often discussed in the context of a digital divide include socioeconomic (rich/poor), racial (white/minority), or geographical (urban/rural). The term global digital divide refers to differences in technology access between countries.

Many expressions were used to describe the dichotomy of people’s participation or not in the Information Society such as information poor/ rich or have/ have not, but the most widely spread now is the "Digital Divide". Used by most international organizations, this expression has become the reference term. At first, some narrower definitions of the digital divide were focused only on access to computers and Internet but access alone does not bridge the technology gap. As a result, definitions are much wider today. "The term 'digital divide' describes the fact that the world can be divided into people who do and people who don't have access to - and the capability to use - modern information technology, such as the telephone, television, or the Internet. The digital divide exists between those in cities and those in rural areas. It also exists between the educated and the uneducated, between economic classes, and, globally, between the more and less industrially developed nations".

• "The digital divide is the "Differences based on race, gender, geography, economic status, and physical ability:
• In access to information, the Internet and other information technologies and services
• In skills, it refers to the gap between knowledge, abilities to use internet and abilities to use technologies".
There are two different forms of Digital divide, one between countries but also between groups within a country. Bridges organization extensive report puts it in these terms "Real disparities exist in access to and use of information and communications technology (ICT) between countries (the "international digital divide or global digital divide") and between groups within countries (the "domestic digital divide")"

Posted at 8:16 PM |  by Unknown
What are Of abets, aids or attempts to commits offence?
a. Any person who knowingly and willfully abets the commission of or who aids to commit or does any act preparatory to or in furtherance of the commission of any offence under this Ordinance shall be guilty of that offence and shall be liable on conviction to the punishment provided for the offence.
b. Any person who attempts to commit an offence under this Ordinance shall be punished for a term which may extend to one haf of the longest term of imprisonment provided for that offence.
Explanation: For aiding or abetting an offence to be committed under this section, it is immaterial whether the offence has been committed or not.
Other offences
Whoever commits any offence, other than those expressly provided under this Ordinance, with the help of computer .electronic system, electronic device or any other electronic mean; shall be punished, in addition to the punishment provided for that offence. with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine not exceeding two hundred thousand rupees, or with both.
Offences by corporate body
A corporate body shall be held liable for an offence under this Ordinance if the offence is committed on its instructions or for its benefit.’ The corporate body shall he punished with fine not less than one hundred thousand rupees or the amount involved in the offence whichever is the higher:
Explanation: For the purposes of this section corporate body, includes a body of persons incorporated under any law such as trust, waqf, an association, a statutory body or a company.

Of Abets Aids or Attempts to commits Offence

What are Of abets, aids or attempts to commits offence?
a. Any person who knowingly and willfully abets the commission of or who aids to commit or does any act preparatory to or in furtherance of the commission of any offence under this Ordinance shall be guilty of that offence and shall be liable on conviction to the punishment provided for the offence.
b. Any person who attempts to commit an offence under this Ordinance shall be punished for a term which may extend to one haf of the longest term of imprisonment provided for that offence.
Explanation: For aiding or abetting an offence to be committed under this section, it is immaterial whether the offence has been committed or not.
Other offences
Whoever commits any offence, other than those expressly provided under this Ordinance, with the help of computer .electronic system, electronic device or any other electronic mean; shall be punished, in addition to the punishment provided for that offence. with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine not exceeding two hundred thousand rupees, or with both.
Offences by corporate body
A corporate body shall be held liable for an offence under this Ordinance if the offence is committed on its instructions or for its benefit.’ The corporate body shall he punished with fine not less than one hundred thousand rupees or the amount involved in the offence whichever is the higher:
Explanation: For the purposes of this section corporate body, includes a body of persons incorporated under any law such as trust, waqf, an association, a statutory body or a company.

Posted at 7:35 PM |  by Unknown
Information and Communication Technologies Tribunal
a. As soon as possible after the commencement of this Ordinance, the Federal Government shall, by notification in the official Gazette, constitute the Information and Communication Technologies Tribunal whose principal seat shall be at Islamabad.
b. The Tribunal may hold its sittings at such place or places as the Federal Government may decide. c. The Tribunal shall consist of a chairman and as many members as the Federal Government may determine but not more than seven members.
d. The Chairman may constitute Benches of the Tribunal and unless otherwise directed by him a Bench shall consist of not less than two members. A Bench shall exercise such powers and discharge such functions as may be prescribed. There shall be established at least one Bench in each province.
e. The Federal Government shall appoint the Chairman and members of the Tribunal.
Saving Tribunal’s proceedings
No act or proceedings of the Tribunal shall be called in question in any manner on the ground merely of any defect in the constitution of the Tribunal.
Right to legal representation
The parties in appeal may either appear in person or authorize one or more legal practitioners, and in case of a corporate body any of its officers, to present the case before the Tribunal.
Appeal to Tribunals
Any person aggrieved by any of the following orders may, within fifteen days from the date of such order, prefer an appeal to the Tribunal.
Appeal to High Court
Any person aggrieved by any decision or order of the Tribunal made under section 40 may prefer second appeal to the respective High Court within thirty days from the date of the decision or order of the Tribunal.

Information and Communication Technologies Tribunal

Information and Communication Technologies Tribunal
a. As soon as possible after the commencement of this Ordinance, the Federal Government shall, by notification in the official Gazette, constitute the Information and Communication Technologies Tribunal whose principal seat shall be at Islamabad.
b. The Tribunal may hold its sittings at such place or places as the Federal Government may decide. c. The Tribunal shall consist of a chairman and as many members as the Federal Government may determine but not more than seven members.
d. The Chairman may constitute Benches of the Tribunal and unless otherwise directed by him a Bench shall consist of not less than two members. A Bench shall exercise such powers and discharge such functions as may be prescribed. There shall be established at least one Bench in each province.
e. The Federal Government shall appoint the Chairman and members of the Tribunal.
Saving Tribunal’s proceedings
No act or proceedings of the Tribunal shall be called in question in any manner on the ground merely of any defect in the constitution of the Tribunal.
Right to legal representation
The parties in appeal may either appear in person or authorize one or more legal practitioners, and in case of a corporate body any of its officers, to present the case before the Tribunal.
Appeal to Tribunals
Any person aggrieved by any of the following orders may, within fifteen days from the date of such order, prefer an appeal to the Tribunal.
Appeal to High Court
Any person aggrieved by any decision or order of the Tribunal made under section 40 may prefer second appeal to the respective High Court within thirty days from the date of the decision or order of the Tribunal.

Posted at 7:20 PM |  by Unknown
Some Disadvantages of an E-Business are given as under:

Less security

The biggest obstacle in the growth of e-commerce is the issue of security. Internet is not a secured medium of communication. There are tools or options available to hackers whereby they can not only monitor but also control any data communicated over the internet. Particularly, people are not comfortable while providing their financial information (credit card no. etc.) online due to the fact that this information can be hacked and misused.
Less privacy
What are The Disadvantages Of E-Business
The nature of internet technology e-business is such that private information of the online customers can be easily collected and recorded on the server side. The buying pattern of a customer can be known to an e-shop with the help of certain sophisticated tools. You know that cookies can be used to track customers online in Electronic business. On one hand these technologies are useful for doing customization but on the other, they can be said to have caused the breach of informational privacy rights in E-Commerce of a person.
No physical proximity with items purchased
In certain cases the customers cannot decide about buying a thing before they can physically examine it. For example, a customer would ideally want to touch and feel the texture of a piece of cloth before buying. Similarly, a customer would actually want to smell a perfume before purchasing it. In the above or any similar case, people cannot expect to physically examine/test the thing while buying it online. Rather, they would prefer to buy such things from physical shops. An e-business has a limitation in this regard. This all known as Disadvantages of an E-Business

What Are The Disadvantages Of E-Business

Some Disadvantages of an E-Business are given as under:

Less security

The biggest obstacle in the growth of e-commerce is the issue of security. Internet is not a secured medium of communication. There are tools or options available to hackers whereby they can not only monitor but also control any data communicated over the internet. Particularly, people are not comfortable while providing their financial information (credit card no. etc.) online due to the fact that this information can be hacked and misused.
Less privacy
What are The Disadvantages Of E-Business
The nature of internet technology e-business is such that private information of the online customers can be easily collected and recorded on the server side. The buying pattern of a customer can be known to an e-shop with the help of certain sophisticated tools. You know that cookies can be used to track customers online in Electronic business. On one hand these technologies are useful for doing customization but on the other, they can be said to have caused the breach of informational privacy rights in E-Commerce of a person.
No physical proximity with items purchased
In certain cases the customers cannot decide about buying a thing before they can physically examine it. For example, a customer would ideally want to touch and feel the texture of a piece of cloth before buying. Similarly, a customer would actually want to smell a perfume before purchasing it. In the above or any similar case, people cannot expect to physically examine/test the thing while buying it online. Rather, they would prefer to buy such things from physical shops. An e-business has a limitation in this regard. This all known as Disadvantages of an E-Business

Posted at 10:24 PM |  by Unknown
Centralized Account Payment Model is a popular payment system on the internet. In this both the payer (buyer) and the payee (merchant) hold accounts at the same centralized on-line financial institution. Over 20 payment systems use this approach e.g., PayPal, E-gold, Billpoint, Cybergold, Yahoo! Pay Direct, Amazon.com Payments etc.

On-line opening/funding of one’s account is done in a centralized bank using credit/debit card or prepaid cards. To make payment an account holder is authenticated using an account identifier and a password, account identifier of the payee and the payment amount. All communication between the user and the bank is protected using SSL (Secure Socket Layer), which is an encryption based protocol.

The chosen account identifier or the account ID is the one which is unique within the system against which the funds are lying in the online bank. Normally, the unique email addresses of the users are chosen as account identifiers. Payees are notified by email of the payment which they can confirm by viewing their account using SSL. A payee must open an account with the online centralized bank to receive the amount in case there is no such account already. In some payment systems which use this approach a question may be sent to the payee to verify his identity where the payer is not sure of that. For instance, Yahoo Paydirect allows a payer-specified question to be sent to the so called email of the payee. If the payer accepts the answer as proof of the correct identity of the payee the money is transferred otherwise the transaction is cancelled. The centralized bank (depending upon its policy) charges a transaction fees either from the payer, or payee or both on funding an account or withdrawing funds from an account or receiving payments by the payee/merchant. This payment model requires that all participants must have their account with the same central payment system/bank. Note that the payee can eventually withdraw the money received in his account in the centralized bank through Automated Clearing House (ACH).

Centralized Account Payment Model

Centralized Account Payment Model is a popular payment system on the internet. In this both the payer (buyer) and the payee (merchant) hold accounts at the same centralized on-line financial institution. Over 20 payment systems use this approach e.g., PayPal, E-gold, Billpoint, Cybergold, Yahoo! Pay Direct, Amazon.com Payments etc.

On-line opening/funding of one’s account is done in a centralized bank using credit/debit card or prepaid cards. To make payment an account holder is authenticated using an account identifier and a password, account identifier of the payee and the payment amount. All communication between the user and the bank is protected using SSL (Secure Socket Layer), which is an encryption based protocol.

The chosen account identifier or the account ID is the one which is unique within the system against which the funds are lying in the online bank. Normally, the unique email addresses of the users are chosen as account identifiers. Payees are notified by email of the payment which they can confirm by viewing their account using SSL. A payee must open an account with the online centralized bank to receive the amount in case there is no such account already. In some payment systems which use this approach a question may be sent to the payee to verify his identity where the payer is not sure of that. For instance, Yahoo Paydirect allows a payer-specified question to be sent to the so called email of the payee. If the payer accepts the answer as proof of the correct identity of the payee the money is transferred otherwise the transaction is cancelled. The centralized bank (depending upon its policy) charges a transaction fees either from the payer, or payee or both on funding an account or withdrawing funds from an account or receiving payments by the payee/merchant. This payment model requires that all participants must have their account with the same central payment system/bank. Note that the payee can eventually withdraw the money received in his account in the centralized bank through Automated Clearing House (ACH).

Posted at 4:42 PM |  by Unknown
A company, DigiCash, has pioneered the use of electronic cash or e-cash. Anonymity of the buyer is the key feature of this system. There are three participants in it, namely, buyer, merchant and bank. Both, symmetric and asymmetric type of cryptography is used in this system. Buyers and merchants, both, have accounts in the E-cash bank. Buyers withdraw coins against their account and store them in e-cash wallet software (Cyber wallet) on their computer. Cyber wallet stores and manages coins and records every transaction. Merchant forwards coins to e-cash bank which ensures that these have not already been spent and credits the account of the merchant.

E-cash Coins
The currency used in this payment system is called an e-cash coin or simply coin. A coin consists of three elements or parts - serial #, key version and serial no. signed by the secret or private key of a certain denomination of the e-cash bank. In other words, a coin of one dollar would consist of the following: Coin = Serial#, key version, {Serial #}SK bank’s $1 key Each coin has a unique value, partly minted by the client and partly by the e-cash bank.

Minting of the coin
A long serial no. is randomly generated by the client’s Cyber wallet in order to mint a coin. This serial no. is blinded, which means that it is multiplied with a blinding factor “r” and sent to the e-cash bank for signatures. Thus, the e-cash bank cannot see the serial no. it is signing. Key version (corresponding public key of the bank) is also part of the coin, and is sent usually at the time of account opening. An e-cash bank may have 1 dollar signature, 5 dollar signature or 10 dollar signature etc. If the client wants to mint a coin of 2 dollars then e-cash bank would use its private or secret key of 2 dollars to sign the serial no.

What Is The E-Cash Payment System

A company, DigiCash, has pioneered the use of electronic cash or e-cash. Anonymity of the buyer is the key feature of this system. There are three participants in it, namely, buyer, merchant and bank. Both, symmetric and asymmetric type of cryptography is used in this system. Buyers and merchants, both, have accounts in the E-cash bank. Buyers withdraw coins against their account and store them in e-cash wallet software (Cyber wallet) on their computer. Cyber wallet stores and manages coins and records every transaction. Merchant forwards coins to e-cash bank which ensures that these have not already been spent and credits the account of the merchant.

E-cash Coins
The currency used in this payment system is called an e-cash coin or simply coin. A coin consists of three elements or parts - serial #, key version and serial no. signed by the secret or private key of a certain denomination of the e-cash bank. In other words, a coin of one dollar would consist of the following: Coin = Serial#, key version, {Serial #}SK bank’s $1 key Each coin has a unique value, partly minted by the client and partly by the e-cash bank.

Minting of the coin
A long serial no. is randomly generated by the client’s Cyber wallet in order to mint a coin. This serial no. is blinded, which means that it is multiplied with a blinding factor “r” and sent to the e-cash bank for signatures. Thus, the e-cash bank cannot see the serial no. it is signing. Key version (corresponding public key of the bank) is also part of the coin, and is sent usually at the time of account opening. An e-cash bank may have 1 dollar signature, 5 dollar signature or 10 dollar signature etc. If the client wants to mint a coin of 2 dollars then e-cash bank would use its private or secret key of 2 dollars to sign the serial no.

Posted at 1:43 PM |  by Unknown
Here some Data Comparing  Paper catalogs  vs  Online catalogs Advantages and Disadvantages
Paper catalogs

Advantages
Easy to create a catalog without high technology
Reader is able to look at the catalog without computer system
More portable than electronic catalog

Disadvantages
Difficult to update changes in the product information
Only limited number of products can be displayed

Online or electronic catalogs

Advantages
Easy to update product information
Able to integrate with the purchasing process
Good search and comparison capabilities
Able to provide timely, up-to-date product information
Can provide broad range of product information
Possibility of adding voice and motion pictures
Cost savings
Easy to customize

Disadvantages
Difficult to develop catalogs
Large fixed cost if used for small no. of products
Need for customer skill to deal with computers and browsers

Paper Catalogs Vs Online Catalogs

Here some Data Comparing  Paper catalogs  vs  Online catalogs Advantages and Disadvantages
Paper catalogs

Advantages
Easy to create a catalog without high technology
Reader is able to look at the catalog without computer system
More portable than electronic catalog

Disadvantages
Difficult to update changes in the product information
Only limited number of products can be displayed

Online or electronic catalogs

Advantages
Easy to update product information
Able to integrate with the purchasing process
Good search and comparison capabilities
Able to provide timely, up-to-date product information
Can provide broad range of product information
Possibility of adding voice and motion pictures
Cost savings
Easy to customize

Disadvantages
Difficult to develop catalogs
Large fixed cost if used for small no. of products
Need for customer skill to deal with computers and browsers

Posted at 12:40 PM |  by Unknown
E-mail marketing campaigns are cheap and effective way to target potential customers. E-mails can instantaneously convey a marketing message to customers at distant areas. Personalized direct e-mails target customers with specific information – name, right product at the right time, special promotions etc. When your e-business is doing global marketing, e-mails can be first translated into proper languages as a personalization measure using specific translation software. Personalization technology (data mining) can also improve response rate tremendously. Where an e-business lacks resources for doing e-mail marketing on its own, it can outsource such campaign to outside firms. For instance, outsourcing services should be used when direct e-mailing becomes too difficult to manage and there is inadequate staff or technical support at the e-business level itself.

E-mails can be used to improve customer service by adding an e-mail link to your web site by E-mail marketing. Thus, you can receive your customers’ complaints through e-mails. It should be ensured that your e-business is capable of handling expected volume of e-mails; otherwise it can bring poor reputation to your business when you receive complaints through emails but are unable to respond. Another advantage with emails is that they can be automatically sorted and sent to the relevant persons. E-mails can be used to inform customers about their order/shipment status etc. Internet mailing lists can also be conveniently used to send targeted personalized emails. You can also provide the “opt-in e-mail” option to your customers on your web site. If they opt for it, this means that they want to receive through email any product information, offers or promotions etc. in the future of E-mail marketing. Spamming is a term used to refer to mass e-mailing to customers who have not expressed any interest in a specific product or service. In different countries, spamming has been declared as an offence. E-mails can be combined with traditional direct marketing. Telemarketing (live interaction through telephone) and e-mails can be combined to reach prospective customers. Similarly, direct mailing and e-mails can also be combined.

E-Mail Marketing Cheap And Effective Campaigns

E-mail marketing campaigns are cheap and effective way to target potential customers. E-mails can instantaneously convey a marketing message to customers at distant areas. Personalized direct e-mails target customers with specific information – name, right product at the right time, special promotions etc. When your e-business is doing global marketing, e-mails can be first translated into proper languages as a personalization measure using specific translation software. Personalization technology (data mining) can also improve response rate tremendously. Where an e-business lacks resources for doing e-mail marketing on its own, it can outsource such campaign to outside firms. For instance, outsourcing services should be used when direct e-mailing becomes too difficult to manage and there is inadequate staff or technical support at the e-business level itself.

E-mails can be used to improve customer service by adding an e-mail link to your web site by E-mail marketing. Thus, you can receive your customers’ complaints through e-mails. It should be ensured that your e-business is capable of handling expected volume of e-mails; otherwise it can bring poor reputation to your business when you receive complaints through emails but are unable to respond. Another advantage with emails is that they can be automatically sorted and sent to the relevant persons. E-mails can be used to inform customers about their order/shipment status etc. Internet mailing lists can also be conveniently used to send targeted personalized emails. You can also provide the “opt-in e-mail” option to your customers on your web site. If they opt for it, this means that they want to receive through email any product information, offers or promotions etc. in the future of E-mail marketing. Spamming is a term used to refer to mass e-mailing to customers who have not expressed any interest in a specific product or service. In different countries, spamming has been declared as an offence. E-mails can be combined with traditional direct marketing. Telemarketing (live interaction through telephone) and e-mails can be combined to reach prospective customers. Similarly, direct mailing and e-mails can also be combined.

Posted at 11:57 AM |  by Unknown
A typical example of the use of technology in supply chain management is a company which is well-known worldwide as the largest producer of commercial aircraft's. It makes a big effort to keep its production on schedule. Most commercial airplanes require more than 1 million individual parts and assemblies and each airplane is configured according to specific needs of the purchasing airline. Timely availability of these parts must be ensured otherwise entire production schedule would be disturbed.

In 1997 the company had to stop its two assembly operations for several weeks due to errors in production and scheduling system causing it a huge financial loss. Thereafter, it decided to invest in information systems in every element of its supply chain. Involving its suppliers in the process, it began the use of EDI and internet technology, so that the suppliers could supply the right part or assembly at right time to prevent production delay.

Now, the suppliers could get engineering specifications and drawings before the start of manufacturing using a secure internet connection, and plan their own business activities, accordingly. Also, members of the supply chain could have the knowledge of the completion of milestones and any changes in production schedule. In two years time, this approach resulted in reducing half the time needed to complete individual assembly processes. Thus, instead of waiting for 3 years the customer airlines could now have the ordered airplane ready for delivery in 10-12 months. Furthermore, the company launched a spare parts web site for ordering replacement parts. The site allowed customer airlines to register and order for replacement parts through browsers. Soon, the site was processing 5000 transactions per day at much lower cost as compared to orders cost through phone, mail, or fax. It also improved customer service in the sense that most parts could now be delivered the same day or the next day.

Another example is of a famous computer selling brand. It realized that by increasing the amount of information about its customers it was able to reduce amount of inventory it should hold. It decided to share this information with other members of the supply chain by allowing its top suppliers to have access to a secure web site which informed them about its latest sales forecasts, planned product changes or any warranty claims etc. It also provided information about its customers and their buying pattern. Thus, it helped suppliers to plan their own production in a much better way. The above examples show how members of supply chain can work together to reduce inventory, increase quality of product, reduce production cost and increase process speed.

Examples of Technology Use in Supply Chain

A typical example of the use of technology in supply chain management is a company which is well-known worldwide as the largest producer of commercial aircraft's. It makes a big effort to keep its production on schedule. Most commercial airplanes require more than 1 million individual parts and assemblies and each airplane is configured according to specific needs of the purchasing airline. Timely availability of these parts must be ensured otherwise entire production schedule would be disturbed.

In 1997 the company had to stop its two assembly operations for several weeks due to errors in production and scheduling system causing it a huge financial loss. Thereafter, it decided to invest in information systems in every element of its supply chain. Involving its suppliers in the process, it began the use of EDI and internet technology, so that the suppliers could supply the right part or assembly at right time to prevent production delay.

Now, the suppliers could get engineering specifications and drawings before the start of manufacturing using a secure internet connection, and plan their own business activities, accordingly. Also, members of the supply chain could have the knowledge of the completion of milestones and any changes in production schedule. In two years time, this approach resulted in reducing half the time needed to complete individual assembly processes. Thus, instead of waiting for 3 years the customer airlines could now have the ordered airplane ready for delivery in 10-12 months. Furthermore, the company launched a spare parts web site for ordering replacement parts. The site allowed customer airlines to register and order for replacement parts through browsers. Soon, the site was processing 5000 transactions per day at much lower cost as compared to orders cost through phone, mail, or fax. It also improved customer service in the sense that most parts could now be delivered the same day or the next day.

Another example is of a famous computer selling brand. It realized that by increasing the amount of information about its customers it was able to reduce amount of inventory it should hold. It decided to share this information with other members of the supply chain by allowing its top suppliers to have access to a secure web site which informed them about its latest sales forecasts, planned product changes or any warranty claims etc. It also provided information about its customers and their buying pattern. Thus, it helped suppliers to plan their own production in a much better way. The above examples show how members of supply chain can work together to reduce inventory, increase quality of product, reduce production cost and increase process speed.

Posted at 7:54 PM |  by Unknown
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